In part 1 of this study were learned that the translators CORRECTLY translated the Greek where Paul is called an apostle of Jesus Christ to refute the CLAIM made by the Jesus Words Only group of Christians that the New Testament is in error. And here is section two we will study the Scriptures that clearly teach us that there were MORE than just the original twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ. We will begin by reading 1 Corinthians 5:1-11.

1 Corinthians 15:1-11.

“Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also you have received, and wherein you stand; 

2. By which also you are saved, if you keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless you have believed in vain. 

3. For I delivered unto you first of all that which I ALSO RECEIVED, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures

4. And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures

5. And that he was SEEN of Cephas, THEN of the twelve: (This does not mean that the risen Jesus was seen of Cephas or Peter and THEN after he was seen of Peter he was seen of the TWELVE because that would make THIRTEEN apostles. Paul is teaching us here an order of events and that not all twelve apostles of Jesus saw him at the same time. The list is not complete nor in exact order, but that is NOT the point Paul is making here. Paul is simply stating WHO saw the risen Jesus.)

6. After that, he was SEEN of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep. 

7. After that, he was SEEN of James; then of all the apostles. (Or of ALL the apostolois.) 

8. And, last of all, he was SEEN of ME ALSO, as of one born out of due time. (Paul is including himself in the phrase ALL of the apostles, and seems to be implying that he was chosen by Jesus as his apostle to the Gentiles)

9. For I am the LEAST of the apostles, that am not meet to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God. (Here we see Paul teaching us that he is NOT worthy to have been CHOSEN by Jesus to be HIS apostle because he persecuted the church)

10. BUT by the grace of God I am what I am: (Or this, my called to be an apostle to the Gentile, is BY the GRACE of God, this is what HE called me to be so I am what I am by HIS doing and NOT my OWN doing) and HIS GRACE, which was bestowed upon me was not in vain; but I labored more abundantly than they all: yet NOT I, but the GRACE OF God which was WITH me. (Labored more than all the other eleven apostles and the disciples before me) 

11. Therefore, whether it was I OR THEY, so WE preach, and so you believed.”

Paul is saying here that is does not matter WHO preaches the gospel to you, it only matters that YOU BELIEVE.

So then, we have seen that Luke clearly believed Paul's teaching and that Paul was indeed an APOSTLE of Jesus Christ along with Barnabas and others as well.

Let us see what the Bible ITSELF teaches, by us all AGREEING for the moment that NOT ALL of what Paul taught could possibly be FALSE teaching as some CLAIM because many became believers by hearing the GOSPEL being preached by Paul. We will come back to this further on in this study to see if ANY of what Paul taught is false teaching. But for now, let us agree that Paul was indeed an “apostle” as well as OTHERS. And for now, I am NOT asking you to agree that Paul is one of the TWELVE apostles. All I am asking of you right now is to please consider the following.

In Galatians 1:19 we read that James, who is the brother of Jesus or half brother of Jesus is called an apostle.

Galatians 1:19.

“But other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lord's brother.”

Now there were TWO of the original twelve apostles, who were named James, but neither of those two, named James of the twelve, is NOT the same James in Galatians 1:19 called the Lord's brother, who is the Lord's half brother.

 Please read Matthew 10:2-5.

“Now the names of the twelve apostles are these; The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, (Jesus was the son of Joseph and Mary, but Joseph was not his biological father. Joseph and Mary had other children and one of Jesus' half brothers was named James, who was ALSO called an APOSTLE in Galatians 1:19, but he was NOT one of the original 12 apostles chosen by Jesus as was James the son of Zebedee) and John his brother; (the brother of James, the son of Zebedee, and not the brother of Jesus) 

3. Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican; James the son of Alphaeus, (This James was NOT the Lord's brother either so clearly the James in Galatians 1:19 is ANOTHER apostle, but clearly was not one of the TWELVE apostles, who were chosen by Jesus) and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus; 

4. Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. 

5. These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them, saying, Go NOT into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter you not:”

Jesus never taught his disciples to go and preach to the GENTILES before his ascension, so this was one of the MANY THINGS that Jesus was YET to teach his disciples AFTER his ascension through the Holy Spirit because they were NOT ABLE to BEAR such teaching BEFORE they were filled with the Holy Spirit. 

In Acts 10:25-28 we see that the OLD covenant did not allow the Jews to keep company with the Gentiles, but God CHANGED this part of the OLD covenant by doing NEW THINGS that God had not done before. And one of those NEW things was God cleansing the Gentiles. God could NOT change the WORDS of the OLD covenant, so God made a NEW COVENANT so he could do NEW things that he had never done before. God will NEVER break his word and this is one of the reasons why God made a NEW covenant.

Acts 10:25-28.

“And as Peter was coming in, Cornelius met him, and fell down at his feet, and worshiped him. 

26. But Peter took him up, saying, Stand up; I myself also am a man. 

27. And as he talked with him, he went in and found many that were come together. 

28. And he said unto them, You know how that it is an unlawful thing for a man that is a Jew to keep company or come unto one of another nation, BUT God has showed me that I should not call any man common or unclean.”

God REVEALED this NEW truth to Peter in a VISION in Acts 10, which we will cover later on. I also have a study specifically devoted to “ACTS 10 PETER'S VISION OF CLEANSED MEATS?” showing that Peter believed that God cleansed ALL manner of meats the SAME as God showed Paul though REVELATION for the Holy Spirit. 

Also please read the study “MUST CHRISTIANS KEEP THE DIETARY LAWS?” for an in-depth study which clearly teaches us that God has cleansed ALL manners of meat, and we as Christians, under the NEW covenant, are free to eat any and all kinds of food EVEN meat that has been offered to idols as if by chance that would ever happen. Now Paul does not mean that we are free to OFFER meat to idols and then eat that meat, which no Christians would do anyway. More on this further on in this study or you can read the two studies above. 

All that Jesus has, Yahweh gave to him and this is why Jesus said, what is HIS, the Holy Spirit will teach to his disciples. In other words, the Holy Spirit will NOT teach us anything that Jesus would not teach us, and Jesus will not teach us anything that Yahweh himself would not teach us.

Again please read John 16:12-15.

I have YET MANY THINGS to say unto you, BUT you CANNOT BEAR them NOW.

13. Howbeit WHEN HE, the Spirit of truth, is come, HE will guide you into ALL TRUTH: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come.

14. He shall glorify ME: for HE RECEIVES of MINE, and shall SHOW it unto you. (Or HE, the Holy Spirit which shall come to dwell IN you, shall teach you those MANY THINGS that you CANNOT bear NOW, but WHEN HE, the Holy Spirit come to dwell IN you, HE will teach you that it is MY teaching that he reveals to you.)

15. All things that the Father has are mine: therefore said I, that he shall take of MINE, and shall show it unto you.” 

So, you see dear children of God, Jesus was still YET TEACHING his disciples NEW THINGS AFTER his ascension that they were NOT able to bear UNTIL they were endued with power from on high and then the Holy Spirit himself taught them the words of Jesus, that they wrote down in the NEW Testament, to teach to US as the Holy Spirit leads and guides US into all truth. This is why Jesus said it was expedient that he went to the Father, because if he did not go, then they nor us could not receive that Holy Spirit. Jesus needed to die on the cross to CLEANSE our vessels so that the Holy Spirit could DWELL IN us as he dwelt IN Jesus.

Now some argue that God changes NOT, but they take verses OUT of CONTEXT to teach this. 

Please read the CONTEXT of Malachi 3:6 and you will see that what God has promised he will do and God promised he would not utterly destroy his people Israel, but he would show mercy lest all remnant of Israel perishes.

Malachi 3:1-6.

“Behold, I will send my messenger (Jesus), and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom you seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom you delight in (looking forward to his coming): behold, he shall come, says the LORD of hosts. (Israel was LOOKING for the Messiah, the messenger of the COVENANT, but they MISSED seeing that Jesus was that messenger of the NEW covenant prophesied in Jeremiah 31:31. But God knew this already because he prophesied it to be this way.) 

2.  But who may abide the day of his coming? (Speaking of the second coming of Jesus) and who shall stand when he appears? for he is like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap:
           3.  And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver: and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer unto the LORD an offering in righteousness.
           4.  Then shall the offering of Judah and Jerusalem be pleasant unto the LORD, as in the days of old, and as in former years.
           5.  And I will come near to you to judgment, and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against the adulterers, and against false swearers, and against those that oppress the hireling in his wages, the widow, and the fatherless, and that turn aside the stranger from his right, and fear not me, saith the LORD of hosts.
           6.  For I am the LORD, I change not; therefore (Therefore for this very reason that I change NOT, you sons of Jacob shall NOT be CONSUMED in my WRATH, even though you deserve to perish, I will show my mercy as I have promised. The context here has NOTHING whatsoever to do with the weekly Sabbath being a perpetual seventh day of the week forever eternal command to ALL of mankind that must be kept for all eternity).
           7.  Even from the days of your fathers you are gone away from mine ordinances and have not kept them. Return unto me, and I will return unto you, saith the LORD of hosts. But you said, Wherein shall we return?”

Here Israel asked God, WHEREIN shall we return. And the rest of the CONTEXT is about tithing and again has nothing to do with God NOT CHANGING the Sabbath because he changes NOT.

The truth of the matter is that Almighty God, Yahweh himself, PROPHESIED that he would do NEW THINGS and new things mean things that he has never done before in the past. And one of those NEW things is a NEW covenant established in the shed blood of Jesus. Another NEW thing was to extend this NEW covenant to Israel FIRST and then turn to a people who were NOT his people. A NEW thing is a CHANGE, something different that God is doing.

But again, God NEVER CHANGED HIS Sabbath. The problem is that the seventh day of the week Sabbath keeping Christians do NOT KNOW what HIS Sabbath IS

You see dear child of God, I myself, AM a Sabbath KEEPING Christian, BUT I am NOT a SEVENTH DAY of the WEEK Sabbath keeper. NOR am I a FIRST DAY of the WEEK Sabbath keeper.

I am a TRUE Sabbath keeper according to the WORD of Almighty God. TRUE Sabbath keepers are NEITHER the seventh day of the week Saturday Sabbath keeping Christians NOR the first day of the week Sunday Sabbath keeping Christians TRUE Sabbath keeping Christians UNDERSTAND that nowhere in the NEW COVENANT written in the New Testament are we, as Christians, ever taught or commanded to KEEP ANY DAY of the WEEK! TRUE Sabbath keepers know and understand that Jesus is their TRUE Sabbath REST. Please read the study “IS JESUS OUR SABBATH REST?”

In TRUTH, God gave the WEEKLY Sabbath to the CHILDREN of Israel for THEM to keep throughout THEIR generations as a SIGN pointing to Jesus as their TRUE Sabbath of CEASING from their own works of the law to make ourselves righteous. Jesus is the SIGN of the NEW COVENANT. Please read the studies ”THE SABBATH REST IS A SIGN!”, and “IS JESUS OUR SABBATH REST!”.

God hated and still hates BOASTING. So he concluded ALL under sin, so that he could show his MERCY and GRACE and that we would be HIS workmanship to become NEW creatures created to do good works through the power of HIS eternal Holy Spirit, DWELLING IN us, who BELIEVE on Jesus as OUR Sabbath REST to CEASE from our OWN works of righteousness.

Romans 11:32  

“For God has concluded them all in unbelief, that he might have mercy upon all.”

Galatians 3:22.

“But the scripture has concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe.” 

Now please read Isaiah 42:1-10, which is a PROPHECY of Jesus as the Messiah of the NEW COVENANT established in his shed blood. The words and teachings of the NEW covenant are in the NEW Testament, and the words and teachings of the OLD covenant are in the OLD Testament.

Isaiah 42:1-10.

Behold my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom my soul delights; I have put my spirit upon him (Or I Yahweh have ANOINTED my servant, mine elect, my Son Jesus): HE shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles

2. He shall not cry, nor lift up, nor cause his voice to be heard in the street. 

3. A bruised reed shall he not break, and the smoking flax shall he not quench: he shall bring forth judgment unto truth. 

4. He shall not fail nor be discouraged, till he have set judgment in the earth: and the isles shall wait for HIS LAW.

5. Thus says God the LORD, he (Yahweh himself ALONE and by himself) that created the heavens, and stretched them out; he that spread forth the earth, and that which comes out of it; he that gives breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein:

6. I the LORD (Yahweh your God and Father) have called YOU (My servant, mine elect, my Son Jesus) in righteousness, and will hold YOUR hand, and will keep YOU, and (I Yahweh your God and Father will) give YOU for a COVENANT of the people, for a light of the Gentiles; (Jesus quoted these verses at the very beginning of his ministry right after God ANOINTED Jesus in Luke 4:14-21. Jesus also taught his disciple to NOT go to the GENTILES in Matthew 10:5 BEFORE his ascension in to heaven. The disciples and apostles of Jesus obeyed the words of Jesus and preached ONLY to the JEWS FIRST, UNTIL the time that Jesus himself APPEARED to Saul of Tarsus and called Paul as HIS CHOSEN VESSEL to preach the gospel to the GENTILES in Acts chapter 9 and began TEACHING them NEW THINGS by REVELATION from the Holy Spirit just like Jesus said he would do in John 16:12. And then right after this Jesus REVEALED this NEW thing of God, cleansing the Gentiles to Saul or Paul, Jesus revealed this SAME NEW thing to Peter in a VISION in Acts 10 to CONFIRM to Peter and the eleven that God was now turning to the GENTILES with the Gospel and blindness in part would come on Israel because of the overall rejection to his so great a salvation. And Isaiah is prophesying these NEW THINGS under God's NEW covenant before they came to pass.)

7. To open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison house.

8. I am the LORD (or I am YAHWEH): that is my name: and my glory will I not give to another, neither my praise to graven images. (This is saying that Yahweh the Father will not share his glory with anyone OTHER than his Son Jesus, which is to be highly exalted to sit at Yahweh's right hand, being given the highest name above all names, to be made the King of kings and the Lord of lords having no one over him EXCEPT for Yahweh himself.)

9.  Behold, the FORMER THINGS are come to PASS, and NEW THINGS do I declare: before they spring forth I tell you of them

10. Sing unto the LORD a NEW song (Israel under the OLD covenant sings the OLD song of Moses, the horse and rider was cast into the sea, but at the end of the 1000 year reign of Jesus they will sing a NEW song, the song of the Lamb. BUT we, who believe and keep the NEW covenant, will sing the NEW song of the LAMB at the BEGINNING of the 1000 year reign of Jesus. The first shall be last and the last shall be first. We as Christians are a NEW creation of God and the FORMER things have past.), and his praise from the end of the earth, you that go down to the sea, and all that is therein; the isles, and the inhabitants thereof.”

And this NEW teaching of Jesus to his apostles and disciples of these NEW THINGS did not BEGIN, until Jesus HIMSELF appeared to Saul of Tarsus and CHOSE Saul, now called Paul, as his CHOSEN VESSEL to the GENTILES saying I will SHOW you what you must do.

Please read Acts 9:1-18.

“And Saul, yet breathing out threatening and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord, went unto the high priest, 

2. And desired of him letters to Damascus to the synagogues, that if he found any of this way, (Believers in Jesus were called the WAY and were not called Christians until later, when they were first called Christians at Antioch in Acts 11:26. The main point here is that Saul had letters in hand to bind any one he found preaching Jesus in Damascus) whether they were men or women, he might bring them bound unto Jerusalem. 

3. And AS he journeyed, he came near Damascus: and suddenly there shined round about him a light from heaven

4. And he fell to the earth, and heard a voice saying unto him, Saul, Saul, why persecute you ME? (Jesus said what ever you do to the least of these little one you do to ME)

5. And he said, Who are you, Lord? And the Lord said, I am Jesus whom you persecute: it is hard for you to kick against the pricks. (To me it is obvious that the Holy Spirit was ALREADY convicting Saul or Paul of his SIN of persecuting Christians. Basically Jesus was saying Paul you cannot fight against the Holy Spirit, which is convicting you. You know that it is I Jesus who is drawing you to me. Please remember that it was brother Luke, who wrote down these words as a RECORD of what took place in the early church. So if you deny that this was truly Jesus himself, who appeared to Paul in a VISION, then you are calling brother Luke a LIAR and a false teacher as well and thus must be consistent in your INTERPRETATIONS and reject not only the teachings of Paul, but you must also reject the teachings of brother Luke, who also wrote as a RECORD the GOSPEL of LUKE, which is in agreement almost word for word with the Gospels of Matthew and Mark. So if Luke is a false teacher saying the same things as Matthew and Mark, then how can you trust the words of Jesus in Matthew, Mark, or Luke? Why not just throw out the WHOLE NEW Testament like the JEWS and the MUSLIMS and DENY that Jesus is the MESSIAH, the Son of the living God and follow ONLY the Torah and the OLD covenant? Either you believe these words of Luke or you do not believe any of the NEW Testament. Either this was indeed the TRUE Jesus, who appeared to Paul or it was ANOTHER Jesus that some Jesus Words Only Sabbath keeping Christians call SATAN masquerading as Jesus. It is YOUR choice and I pray that you make the RIGHT choice dead child of God! The fact is that YOU must work out your own salvation with FEAR and TREMBLING!)

6. And he trembling and astonished said, Lord, what will YOU have me to do? And the Lord said unto him, Arise, and go into the city, and it SHALL BE told you what you must do. (Here we learn that Jesus SHALL teach Paul what he must do. One passage of scripture does NOT teach us everything. Other verses teach us that Paul had many other visions and revelations from the Holy Spirit, which is HOW Jesus said he would teach his disciples yet MANY THINGS that they could NOT bear UNTIL the Holy Spirit came to dwell IN them. The church was still yet LEARNING NEW THINGS which Yahweh prophesied in the Old Testament that he would do. And it took some time for these NEW THINGS to be accepted by the APOSTLES of Jesus including Peter.)

7. And the men which journeyed with him stood speechless, hearing a voice, but seeing no man. 

8. And Saul arose from the earth; and when his eyes were opened, he saw no man: but they led him by the hand, and brought him into Damascus. 

9. And he was three days without sight, and neither did eat nor drink. (Saul or Paul was a JEW. He knew to pray and fast and how to seek what Yahweh wants him to do)

10. And there was a certain DISCIPLE (A disciple is one who is a LEARNER of the teachings of Jesus including the NEW THINGS Jesus is about to teach his disciple) at Damascus, named Ananias; and to him said the Lord in a VISION, Ananias. And he said, Behold, I am here, Lord. 

11. And the Lord said unto him, Arise, and go into the street which is called Straight, and inquire in the house of Judas for one called Saul, of Tarsus: FOR, behold (Or BECAUSE look and see that), he prays, (Now Jesus may have opened the eyes of Ananias to actually see in a vision that Saul was praying and fasting to understand what the Lord wanted him to do or Jesus may have just told Ananias that Saul was praying.)

12. AND HE seen in a VISION a man named Ananias coming in, and putting his hand on him, that he might receive his sight. (Here we see that BOTH Ananias and Saul are being given VISIONS from Jesus to LEARN what they are to DO. They are being TAUGHT by the Holy Spirit by REVELATION through VISIONS just like Peter said in Acts 2:1-18, when they received the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost as a fulfillment of the prophecy of Joel.)

13. Then Ananias answered, Lord, I have heard by many of this man, how much evil he has done to your saints at Jerusalem:

14. And here he has authority from the chief priests to bind all that call on you name.

15. But the Lord said unto him (Basically Jesus is saying do not fear Ananias, but), Go you way: FOR (Or BECAUSE) HE is a CHOSEN VESSEL unto ME, (I MYSELF have PERSONALLY CHOSEN Saul) to bear MY NAME before the GENTILES, and kings, and the children of Israel:

16. For I WILL SHOW him how great things he must suffer for MY name's sake. (Remember that it is brother Luke, who is revealing or teaching these words of Jesus teaching NEW THINGS to his disciple Ananias. Jesus is teaching not only Ananias, but also US as well, that Paul is a CHOSEN vessel that Jesus HIMSELF has chosen to take the gospel to the GENTILES, which again is a NEW THING that God has not done before. Jesus was given this NEW thing to teach his disciples that they could NOT bear during the days of his ministry, in the days of his flesh. And now that Holy Spirit is taking what now belongs to Jesus and is TEACHING these NEW THINGS to the disciples and APOSTLES of Jesus, they will eventually SEE that this NEW teaching is indeed OF Almighty God himself. But again it took some TIME as they were YET LEARNING these NEW THINGS that were not taught or revealed to them under the OLD covenant.)

17.  And Ananias went his way, and entered into the house; and putting his hands on him said, Brother Saul, the Lord, EVEN JESUS, that appeared unto YOU in the way as you came, has sent me, that you might receive your sight, AND be filled with the Holy Ghost.

18. And immediately there fell from his eyes as it had been scales: and he received sight forthwith, and arose, and was baptized.

Saul became a NEW creature IN Jesus Christ that day, and if you continue reading in Acts you will LEARN all the mighty ACTS of the APOSTLE Paul that Yahweh himself did through Paul's hand as a CHOSEN vessel who his Son Jesus personally CHOSE to be HIS APOSTLE to the GENTILES.

Now SOME of you may still argue that Paul was NOT a true apostle of Jesus. While others may agree that Paul was indeed an apostle of Jesus, but may still argue that he was NOT one of the TWELVE Apostles of Jesus with capital “A”, because Matthias had already been chosen to take the place of the apostleship of Judas Iscariot, who betrayed Jesus and committed suicide, and then lost his position as one of the TWELVE Apostles of Jesus.

We will cover this question of WHO replaced Judas in the next section of this study in God's word, but for now, let us see who the OTHER apostles of Jesus were apart from the ELEVEN.

We have already seen that James the half brother of Jesus was called an apostle in Galatians 1:19, so now let us read Acts 14:14 again to see that both Paul and Barnabas are all called apostles by brother Luke.

Acts 14:14.

“Which when the APOSTLES, Barnabas and Paul, heard of, they rent their clothes, and ran in among the people, crying out,”

So now, not only do we have the original ELEVEN Apostle of Jesus, but we also we have James, the half brother of Jesus, we have Paul and we have Barnabas as well being called apostles.

Then we read in 1 Corinthians 4:6-9 that Apollos is an apostle.

1 Corinthians 4:6-9.

“And these things, brethren, I have in a figure transferred to myself and to Apollos for your sake; that ye might learn in us not to think of men above that which is written, that no one of you be puffed up for one against another. 

7. For who makes you to differ from another? and what have you that you did not receive? now if you did receive it, why do you glory, as if you had not received it? 

8. Now you are full, now you are rich, you have reigned as kings without us: and I would to God you did reign, that we also might reign with you. 

9. For I think that God has set forth US the apostles last (Paul is saying that ALL the apostles of Jesus Christ are last, but ALSO includes Apollos to an apostle as well, because in verse 8 he just said that the believers he was speaking to reigned as kings WITHOUT US. Paul is saying the we reign as kings no matter WHO preaches the gospel to us. So Paul is saying whether the eleven apostles or WE Apollos and myself have preached to you, you reign as kings because you have believed and WE, Apollos and me, the apostles of Jesus reign WITH you, but it seems that we APOSTLES are last), as it were appointed to death: for we are made a spectacle unto the world, and to angels, and to men.”

Now some may doubt that Paul was calling Apollos an apostle of Jesus Christ. If this is you, then please read 1 Corinthians 1:10-15.

1 Corinthians 1:10-15.

“Now I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you ALL speak the SAME thing, and that there be NO divisions among you; but that you be perfectly joined together in the same mind and in the same judgment.

11. For it has been declared unto me of you, my brethren, by them which are of the house of Chloe, that there are contentions (Controversy, division, and strife) among you. 

12. Now this I say, that every one of you says, I am of Paul; and I of Apollos; and I of Cephas (Or I am of Peter); and I of Christ. (Or I am Baptist, I am Lutheran, I am a Calvinist. I am Catholic, or I am Pentecostal, and so forth and so on)

13. Is Christ divided? was Paul crucified for you? or were you baptized in the name of Paul? (Here we see Paul saying again that it does NOT matter WHO preached the gospel to you. You are saved because JESUS was preached unto you. So all these divisions of different church denominations ought NOT be so.) 

14. I thank God that I baptized none of you, but Crispus and Gaius; 

15. Lest any should say that I had baptized in mine OWN name.”

Also, we see in this passage of scripture that Jesus is THE APOSTLE of Yahweh himself, that Cephas or Peter is one of the original twelve apostles, and that Paul was an apostle. So then, it is safe to conclude than since some in Corinth where ALSO saying that they were of APOLLOS, then Apollos was ALSO an apostle of Jesus Christ along with Paul and Peter.

Now let us read 1 Corinthians 3:1-11, where we see Paul teaching us to NOT be followers of MEN saying I am of this denomination or I am of that denomination, because church denominations are only ministers of CHRIST and it is Almighty God Yahweh himself, who gives the INCREASE.

1 Corinthians 3:1-11.

“And I, brethren, could not speak unto you as unto spiritual, but as unto carnal, even as unto babes in Christ. 

2. I have fed you with milk, and not with meat: for hitherto you were not able to bear it, neither yet now are ye able. 

3. For you are yet carnal: for whereas there is among you envying, and strife, and DIVISIONS, are you not carnal, and walk as men

4. For while one says, I am of Paul; and another, I am of APOLLOS; are you not carnal

5. Who then is Paul, and who is Apollos, but ministers by whom you believed, even as the Lord gave to every man? (Here we see Paul teaching us to NOT exalt ourselves. Paul is saying though I and Apollos be apostles of Jesus Christ we are MINISTERS of the gospel of Jesus Christ the same as you are also ministers of the gospel. So STOP exalting us by DIVIDING yourselves saying, well I am of Paul or I am of Apollos, because we are simply messengers of the Gospel of Jesus Christ the same as you.)

6. I have planted, Apollos watered; but God gave the increase. (Paul is saying, Yes it is true that as apostles of Jesus Christ both Apollos and myself have planted the seed of God's word where it has not been planted before. Sometimes Apollos planted and I watered. And at other times I planted and Apollos watered, but it is ALWAYS Almighty God Yahweh himself, who gives the INCREASE.)

7. So then neither is he that plants any thing, neither he that waters; but God that gives the increase. 

8. Now he that plants and he that waters are one: and every man shall receive his own reward according to his own labor. (Here we see one of the TRUE definitions of an apostle of Jesus Christ as being the one who plants the seed of God's word and the one who waters that seed of God's word in NEW soil to bring forth NEW fruit or a NEW building block in the building of God. Today we call these ministers of the Gospel of Jesus Christ MISSIONARIES, who plant NEW churches begetting NEW believers into the body of Jesus Christ, BUILDING the church, always remember to give the GLORY to Almighty God who gives the INCREASE. So in that sense, ANY disciple can be an apostle of Jesus Christ by simply being a PART of bring someone NEW into the body of Jesus Christ. But in the church today we have SOME who BOAST that THEY are Apostles to lord OVER their followers. But the Bible ITSELF teaches us that we are ALL laborers together WITH God and we ALL shall receive our own reward ACCORDING to our own labor to work.) 

9. For we are laborers together WITH God: you are God's husbandry, you are God's building. 

10. According to the grace of God which is given unto me, as a wise master builder, I have laid the foundation, and another builds thereon. But let every man take heed how he builds thereupon. 

11. For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.

So, Paul and ALL the apostles of Jesus Christ lay the FOUNDATION of JESUS CHRIST, and then other disciples build upon that ONE and ONLY foundation to root and ground the NEW Christians in the word of God so that they are NOT tossed to and fro by every wind of man-made doctrine that comes along. And if so be that new building block in God's building REMAINS unto the end, then ALL who helped build on the foundation of Jesus Christ shall receive a reward. But if that Christian does NOT remain faithful unto the end, then he or she, the WORK of ours will perish, but WE ourselves will receive eternal life in the world to come if so be that WE remain faithful unto the end.

So then, by the simplest definition of an apostle it is ANY believer, who is sent out by the Holy Spirit to lead a person to Jesus Christ. That believer, in the simplest form of the word apostle, is the apostle to THAT or to THOSE believers, which he or she LEAD to Jesus to be saved. Other believers can water that new believer, but that new believer has already been PLANTED into the kingdom of God and the one, who planted that of those new believers, are apostles TO those new believer or believers, especially when he or she or those new believers never heard the gospel ever before by anyone else. So today, it is possible for there to be apostles but we or the church today call them missionaries, because they PLANT churches where the people have NEVER heard the gospel before. But just because one has been planted in Jesus Christ or in the faith does not automatically mean that they will REMAIN true believers unto the end.

Jesus taught us the SAME thing in Matthew 24:11-14 that ONLY those of us who ENDURE unto the END shall be SAVED.

Matthew 24:11-14.

“And many false prophets (Not false apostles, but false prophets) shall rise, and shall deceive many. (Now, the Jesus Words Only Christians along with most, if not all seventh day of the week Sabbath keeping Christians, sincerely believe that all NON seventh day of the week Sabbath keeping Christians are the ones, who are being deceived by the false prophet, false teachers, and false apostle Paul. And on the other side of the coin, ALL NON seventh day of the week Sabbath keeping Christians sincerely believe that all seventh day of the week Sabbath keeping Christians are being subverted to be brought under the bondage of the Law of Moses and are in ERROR by dogmatically demanding that Christians must keep ALL the Torah or all the law of God written in the Old Testament, which are the words of the OLD covenant. And WE are greatly concerned that our dear brothers in our Lord Jesus Christ, who are the seventh day of the week Sabbath-keepers, are NOT enduring unto the END by obeying the TRUE GOSPEL of Jesus Christ by teaching that Christians must keep ALL the law of God written in the Old Testament under the OLD covenant in order to please God)

12. And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many (Of YOU the understood subject be spoken to by Jesus) shall wax cold. 

13. But he (Of YOU) that shall ENDURE unto the END, the SAME shall be saved

14. And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come.”

Now the THIS GOSPEL that Jesus is speaking of is the very gospel that he taught to his TWELVE apostles and all of his disciples to teach to US. The, THIS GOSPEL, is the good news of the NEW COVENANT. If so be that Jesus taught his apostles and disciples the SAME EXACT OLD covenant, then the unbelieving Jews, who were still yet under the OLD covenant would not have persecuted and killed the believers of the WORDS of Jesus. Please read the study “ARGUMENTS FOR THE SABBATH!” for an in-depth study in God's word on whether or not Christians must keep the seventh day of the week or the first day of the week or any day of the week.

But for now, let us continue this study in God's word to see who the Bible itself calls apostles. We have already seen that James the half brother of Jesus is called an apostle in Galatians 1:19, and that both Paul and Barnabas are called apostles by brother Luke in Acts 14:14. Then we learned that Apollos was called an apostle in 1 Corinthians 4:6-9. Now let us read 1 Thessalonians 1:1 through 1 Thessalonians 2:6 where we see that both Timothy and Silvanus are called apostles of Jesus Christ.

1 Thessalonians 1:1-10.

“Paul, and Silvanus, and Timotheus, unto the church of the Thessalonians which is in God the Father and in the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace be unto you, and peace, from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

2. WE give thanks to God always for you all, making mention of you in our prayers;

3. Remembering without ceasing your work of faith, and labor of love, and patience of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ, in the sight of God and our Father; 

4. Knowing, brethren beloved, your election of God.

5. For OUR gospel came NOT unto you in word ONLY, but ALSO in POWER, and IN the Holy Ghost, and in much assurance; as you know what manner of men we were among you for your sake. (Paul is NOT saying that he is teaching ANOTHER or a DIFFERENT gospel as some wrongly teach, but Paul is simply saying the gospel which WE have preached to you we did not preach to you in word ONLY. Rather WE preached the gospel unto you being CONFIRMED to you by the POWER of God bearing WITNESS to us as to what manner of men we are by God himself granting these SIGNS and WONDERS be done by our hands. Not as if WE have any power in ourselves, but rather it is HE who dwells IN us who has done these mighty works in your presence for YOUR sake.)

6. And you became followers of US (As WE follow Jesus Christ), AND (Followers) of the Lord, having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Ghost: (In other words, to INTERPRET these word of Paul that he is gathering followers unto HIMSELF, teaching a DIFFERENT gospel from the other ELEVEN apostles of Jesus, is simply an INCORRECT interpretation of Paul's words being taken OUT of CONTEXT.) 

7. So that you were ensamples (Or examples) to all that believe in Macedonia and Achaia. 

8. For (Or because) from you sounded out the word of the Lord not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place your faith to God-ward is spread abroad; so that we need not to speak any thing. (Paul is exhorting the disciples of Jesus that he and others like Timothy and Silvanus have brought to the Lord and have made disciples to go out and disciple others the true gospel of Jesus Christ)

9. For they themselves show of us what manner of entering in WE had unto you (Here Paul is saying we know this because THEY told us how you have minister to others the gospel), AND HOW you turned to God from idols to serve the living and true God; 

10. And to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead, even Jesus, which delivered us from the wrath to come.”

From the above verses we learn that the WE and US are referring to the apostle Paul, Timothy and Silvanus who are all called apostles in 1 Thessalonians 2:6. 

Please read 1 Thessalonians 2:1-6.

“For yourselves, brethren, know OUR entrance in unto you, that it was not in vain: (Speaking of Paul, Timothy and Silvanus who preached the Gospel of Jesus Christ to them)

2. But even after that WE had suffered before, and were shamefully entreated, as you know, at Philippi, WE were bold in our God to speak unto you the gospel of God with much contention. 

3. For OUR exhortation was not of deceit, nor of uncleanness, nor in guile: 

4. But as WE were allowed OF God to be put in trust with the gospel, even so we speak; not as pleasing men, but God, which tries our hearts. 

5. For neither at any time used WE flattering words, as you know, nor a cloak of covetousness; God is witness: (In other words, God would NOT have confirmed HIS word with SIGNS following if so be that we were deceiving you.)

6. Nor of men sought WE glory, neither of you, nor yet of others, when WE might have been burdensome, AS the APOSTLES OF Christ.”

So then, clearly see the plural of WE and US, and OUR all the way through this passage of scripture, so we can safely conclude that all three, Paul, Timothy, and Silvanus are ALL apostles of Jesus Christ teaching the TRUE gospel where many were being saved as God gave the increase.

Thus, at the point, we have seen that James the half brother of Jesus is called and apostle. Paul is called an apostle, Barnabas is called an apostle. Apollos is called an apostle. Timothy is called an apostle and Sivlvanus is called an apostle. So, thus far we have six disciple of Jesus, who are called apostles apart from the original ELEVEN apostles that Jesus chose before the cross.

Let us now read Philippians 2:25 where it is not readily seen that Epaphroditus is an apostle until you look of the word translated as “messenger” in the King James Version and see that it was translated from the Greek word “apsotolon”, which also means “apostle”.

Philippians 2:12-27.

“Wherefore, my beloved, as you have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling

13. For it is God which works in you both to will and to do of his good pleasure. 

14. Do all things without murmurings and disputings: 

15. That you may be blameless and harmless, the sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation, among whom you shine as lights in the world; 

16. Holding forth the word of life; that I may rejoice in the day of Christ, that I have not run in vain, neither labored in vain.

17. Yea, and if I be offered upon the sacrifice and service of your faith, I joy, and rejoice with you all. 

18. For the same cause also do you joy, and rejoice with me. 

19. But I trust in the Lord Jesus to send Timotheus shortly unto you, that I also may be of good comfort, when I know your state. (When you consider all that Paul wrote and taught you will see that the care of the churches came upon him daily. Paul was deeply concerned that his disciples might be DRAWN away from the TRUE gospel by being subverted to keep ALL the Law of Moses under the OLD covenant. And he is saying that the apostle Timothy has the SAME concerns.)

20. For I have no man like minded, who will naturally care for your state. (Or who loves you as much as I do and who will boldly stand up against the false teaching of those who are subverting the true gospel of Jesus Christ) 

21. For all seek their own, not the things which are Jesus Christ's

22. But you know the proof of him, that, as a son with the father, he has served WITH me in the gospel

23. Him therefore I hope to send presently, as soon as I shall see how it will go with me.

24. But I trust in the Lord that I also myself shall come shortly. 

25 Yet I supposed it necessary to send to you Epaphroditus, my brother, and companion in labor, and fellow soldier, but YOUR messenger, and he that ministered to my wants. 

26. For he longed after you all, and was full of heaviness, because that you had heard that he had been sick. 

27. For indeed he was sick nigh unto death: but God had mercy on him; and not on him only, but on me also, lest I should have sorrow upon sorrow.”

The words, but YOUR messenger teaches us that Epaphroditus is the disciple of Jesus, who preached the gospel to those in Philippi for the FIRST time for THEM to hear the good news of so great a salvation to bring them to the Lord Jesus Christ to be saved. And when we look up the word translated as “messenger” in a concordance, we find that it is the Greek word “apostolon” or “apostolos” having the SAME Strong's #652, which is the SAME Greek word translated as Apostle in Hebrews 3:1, when referring the Jesus himself as the Apostle of Almighty God the Father. 

And it is also the SAME Greek word translated as apostles in Matthew 10:2 and Luke 6:13 speaking of the TWELVE apostles of Jesus Christ, whom Jesus himself chose and also called those twelve apostles. AND it is ALSO the SAME Greek word, used in ALL 19 verses where Paul is called an APOSTLE of Jesus Christ. So now, we have seen that there are seven, who are called apostles apart from the eleven.

Then we find in 2 Corinthians 8:16-24 TWO unnamed apostle, who came WITH Titus that are NOT called by name. The first brother is identified by a description as a “brother, whose praise, applause or fame is in the gospel throughout all the churches” in verse 18, and who ALSO was called or selected by the churches to travel WITH Paul and Titus and others, who traveled with Paul. The second unnamed brother called an apostle is described in verse 22 as one who has been proved. Now I am just throwing out a thought that one of these unnamed apostles may have been brother Luke, just a thought because we are not specifically given the NAME of either of these unnamed Apostles of Jesus Christ. All we know for sure is that brother Luke traveled with Paul at least some of the time.

2 Corinthians 8:16-24.

But thanks be to God, which put the same earnest care INTO the heart of Titus FOR you

17. For indeed he accepted the exhortation (Or Titus embrace this love for you that God has placed in his heart); but being more forward, of his own accord he went unto you. (Or and he step forward without being asked to come unto you) 

18. And we have sent WITH him the brother, whose praise is in the gospel throughout all the churches

19. And NOT that only, but who was ALSO chosen of the churches to travel with us with this grace, which is administered by us to the glory of the same Lord, and declaration of your ready mind: 

20. Avoiding this, that no man should blame us in this abundance which is administered by us: 

21. Providing for honest things, not only in the sight of the Lord, but also in the sight of men. 

22. And we have sent WITH THEM    (With Titus and the other unnamed brother described in verse 18,19) our brother, whom we have oftentimes proved diligent in many things, but now much more diligent, upon the great confidence which I have in you. 

23. Whether any do inquire of Titus, he is my partner and fellow helper concerning you: OR our brethren be inquired of, THEY are the messengers of the churches, and the glory of Christ

24. Wherefore show you to THEM, and before the churches, the proof of your love, and of our boasting on your behalf.”

Again, the Greek word translated as “messenger” here is that SAME Greek word translated as Apostle in Hebrews 3:1, when referring the Jesus himself as the Apostle of Almighty God the Father.

And it is also the SAME Greek word translated as apostles in Matthew 10:2 and Luke 6:13 speaking of the TWELVE apostles of Jesus Christ, whom he chose and also called those CHOSEN twelve apostles. AND it is ALSO the SAME Greek word, used in ALL 19 verses where Paul is also called an APOSTLE. 

Now Titus may well have also been an apostle of Jesus Christ. Seeing that Paul sent WITH Titus, these two brothers who were called apostles, as opposed to sending Titus WITH the two unnamed apostles. So to ME, I myself see Titus as also being an apostle of Jesus Christ.

This brings the total number of those called apostles in the New Testament to 22. Allow me to list them for you by number, giving you at least one verse where they are called an APOSTLE.

#1. Jesus called an Apostle in Hebrews 3:1.

#2. The TWELVE chosen by Jesus before the cross being called apostles in Luke 6:13. We will count them as the ELEVEN. Because Judas Iscariot lost his apostleship when he betrayed Jesus and committed suicide, and for ME, I do not count Judas Iscariot as an apostle but will add him in the final total if you want to count him as an apostle.

#3. James the half brother of Jesus called an apostle in Galatians 1:19.

#4. Paul called an apostle by brother Luke in Acts 14:14.

#5. Barnabus called an apostle by Luke in Acts 14:14.

#6. Apollos called an apostle in 1 Corinthians 4:6-9.

#7. Timothy called an apostle in 1 Thessalonians 1:1 combined with 1 Thessalonians 2:6.

#8. Silvanus called an apostle in 1 Thessalonians 1:1 combined with 1 Thessalonians 2:6.

#9. Epaphroditus called an apostle in Philippians 2:25.

#10. The first unnamed brother called an apostle in 2 Corinthians 8:16-24.

#11. The second unnamed brother called an apostle in 2 Corinthians 8:16-24. 

#12. Titus who is assumed to be an apostle by the context of 2 Corinthians 8:16-24.

So then, we have Jesus, the ELEVEN, seven more by name, two unnamed, and one named Titus, assumed to be an apostle, which again brings the total number of apostles thus far to 22.

But let us not forget Matthias, who was chosen by the ELEVEN in Acts 1:12-26.

Acts 1:12-26.

“Then returned they unto Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is from Jerusalem a Sabbath day's journey. 

13. And when they were come in, they went up into an upper room, where abode both Peter, and James, and John, and Andrew, Philip, and Thomas, Bartholomew, and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon Zelotes, and Judas the brother of James. (NOT Judas Iscariot, the betrayer.)

14. These (ELEVEN) all continued with one accord in prayer and supplication, with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brethren. 

15. And in those days Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples, and said, (the number of names together were about a hundred and twenty,) 

16. Men and brethren, this scripture must needs have been fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost by the mouth of David spake before concerning Judas, which was guide to them that took Jesus. 

17. For he WAS numbered with us, and had obtained part of this ministry. 

18. Now this man purchased a field with the reward of iniquity; and falling headlong, he burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out. 

19. And it was known unto all the dwellers at Jerusalem; insomuch as that field is called in their proper tongue, Aceldama, that is to say, The field of blood.

20. For it is written in the book of Psalms, Let his habitation be desolate, and let no man dwell therein: and his bishoprick let another take

21. Wherefore of these men which have accompanied with us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us,

22. Beginning from the baptism of John, unto that same day that he was taken up from us, must one be ordained to be a witness with us of his resurrection. 

23. And they appointed two, Joseph called Barsabas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias. (It does not say that they appointed two BY the Holy Spirit. In the next verse, we see that they prayed, but if the Holy Spirit led them to specifically appoint Justus and Mathias then they would have already known to obey the leading of the Holy Spirit and there would have been no need to pray)

24. And they prayed, and said, You, Lord, which knows the hearts of all men, show whether of these two you have chosen,

25 That he may take part of this ministry and apostleship, from which Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place.

26. And they gave forth their lots; and the lot fell upon Matthias; and he was numbered with the eleven apostles.”

So then, Matthias brings the total number of apostles to 23, again not yet counting Judas Iscariot, the betrayer as an apostle, because the scripture says let another take his place. So to ME, Judas Iscariot should no longer be counted as an apostle of Jesus Christ. So for ME, I find that the total number who are called apostles to be 23, but we have two more POSSIBLE brothers who are called apostles depending on how one INTERPRETS Romans 16:7.

Romans 16:7.

“Salute Andronicus and Junia, my kinsmen, and my fellow prisoners, who are of noted among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me.” 

Now, this could be a study in and of itself, so for now, I myself am not going to consider these two as being apostles, but rather that they both were considered notable BY the apostles. The Greek word translated as “among” the apostles carries the meaning of “position or place in proximity. It also means “BY”.

Also, this is the ONLY verse where their names are mentioned, so to ME, to INTERPRET this verse as these two being NOTABLE apostles, without any other mention of ANY of their ACTS as apostles, is reading into this verse one's own desired meaning.

And to me, seeing that Jesus himself called Paul his CHOSEN VESSEL to the Gentiles and these other two were IN Christ BEFORE Paul, it does not seem logical that these two named Andronicus and Junia are apostles, but rather are notable Christians who worked with or among the apostles of Jesus Christ in close proximity.

So then, to ME, the number of apostles I myself find in the New Testament remains at 23 when we include Jesus himself. But in this study, we are determining the number of the apostles OF Jesus Christ, so this brings the number of apostles back down to 22 apostles OF Jesus Christ who are called apostles in the New Testament.

Now if YOU want to ADD Judas Iscariot AND both Andronicus and Junia, then the number of the apostles OF Jesus Christ would be 25 and if you count Jesus the number would be 26 who are called disciples in the New Testament. 

But as for ME, again I myself find 22 apostles OF Jesus Christ because I do not count Jesus as being an apostle OF himself. Nor do I count Judas Iscariot, because he not only betrayed Jesus but also committed suicide, which to ME shows that even though he may have repented he certainly did NOT BELIEVE he was forgiven, otherwise, he would not have committed suicide. And unless otherwise convinced with some sound Biblical evidence, I myself must rule out Andronicus and Junia as being apostles of Jesus.

Now certainly Jesus HIMSELF chose TWELVE of his disciples, who were ALSO called APOSTLES, which we have already learned from Luke 6:13, 22; Matthew 10:2, and Acts chapter 1.

And we also learn from Matthew 19:28 and Revelation that ONLY TWELVE of the apostles are appointed a special place of position in the world to come.

Please read Matthew 19:28.

“And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That you which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, you also shall sit upon TWELVE thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.”

Now Jesus was talking to the ORIGINAL TWELVE apostles that he himself CHOSE, but Judas had not yet betrayed Jesus when he spoke these words saying YOU speaking to all twelve original apostles.

Later we see the twelve now being called the ELEVEN. But we know that there will be TWELVE names written upon the TWELVE foundations of the New Jerusalem, the city of God coming down from heaven.

Please read Revelation 21:10-14.

“And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God, 

11. Having the glory of God: and her light was like unto a stone most precious, even like a jasper stone, clear as crystal; 

12. And had a wall great and high, and had twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel:

13. On the east three gates; on the north three gates; on the south three gates; and on the west three gates. 

14. And the wall of the city had TWELVE foundations, and in them the names of the TWELVE apostles of the Lamb.”

So then since the original TWELVE apostles of Jesus are also called the ELEVEN and we clearly see TWELVE names that shall be written of TWELVE foundations of the city of God called the New Jerusalem, then it stands to reason that ONE and ONLY ONE other name is intended to be added BACK to the ELEVEN to AGAIN make their number to be TWELVE.

Now before we begin the next section of this study in God’s word to determine the soundest Biblical option as to WHO the TWELFTH apostle will be, let us look at two more verses of scripture found in Revelation 4:4 and Revelation 11:16.

Revelation 4:4.

“And round about the throne were four and twenty seats: and upon the seats, I saw four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in white raiment; and they had on their heads crowns of gold.

Revelation 11:16.

“And the four and twenty elders, which sat before God on their seats, fell upon their faces, and worshiped God,”

In both of these verses, we see TWENTY FOUR seats, for twenty-four ELDERS. Now I myself believe that TWELVE of those twenty-four seats will be filled by the TWELVE apostles and the other TWELVE seats will be filled by TWELVE leaders or founders, if you will, of the twelve tribes of Israel. Again, that is another study in and of itself, but I thought I would just mention it and perhaps at a later time, I will write a study on the 24 elders. But for now, on to the next section of this study in God's word. To read part 3 of this study please click on the study called IS PAUL THE TWELFTH APOSTLE?

Thanks for reading and may God bless you richly as you continue to read ALL the studies that I gave links to throughout this study concerning this subject on Sabbath TRUTH. I will post them again below along with all the studies that I have on this subject. Also, below are some quotes from early church writers that prove beyond any shadow of a doubt that the early church did not keep the seventh day of the week as the Jews.

Your brother in our Lord Jesus Christ,

Brother Mark.





Some Christians CLAIM that the early church kept the Sabbath as the Jews, but I assure you that the early first-century church was accustomed to gathering together BEFORE the light of daybreak on the FIRST day of the week that THEY called the Lord's day.

Please read all the studies linked within this study and all the studies linked below. This study was just the TIP of the iceberg of exposing the ERRORS of interpretation made by the Saturday seventh day of the week Sabbath-keeping churches, and the Sunday first day of the week Sabbath-keeping Christians. All of the studies listed below can be sent to a brother or sister caught up in the Hebrew Roots Movement or a Sabbath-keeping church by sending them this one link “>>>WHAT IS THE TRUE SABBATH?<<<”

Or you can pick and choose any of the links below to send to them or read for yourself. Be sure to read the HISTORICAL evidence if you have not already done so. I post the SAME historical evidence at the end of almost every study on this subject of the Sabbath day. But if you want to read it again you may see something that did not stand out before.















“HAS GOD'S LAW BEEN ABOLISHED? (Matthew 5:17-19)”



















Again, some Christians make the CLAIM that the early church kept the Sabbath as the Jews, but I assure you that the early first-century church was accustomed to gathering together BEFORE the light of daybreak on the FIRST day of the week that THEY called the Lord's Day.

Here is a NON BIAS historical account found in a letter from Pliny the Younger to Trojan concerning the Christians.

Pliny was a Roman who persecuted and killed Christians, so again this is a historical NON BIAS account of WHEN Christians gathered together.

Here is what Pliny says in his letter to Trojan. The EMPHASIS and comments in parenthesis are my own:


“That they were WONT (Or as they were ACCUSTOMED and USED to do, or in the HABIT of doing), on a STATED day (Or on a CERTAIN preset day), to meet together BEFORE IT WAS LIGHT, and to sing a hymn to Christ, as to a god, alternately; and to oblige themselves by a sacrament [or oath], not to do anything that was ill: but that they would commit no theft, or pilfering, or adultery; that they would not break their promises, or deny what was deposited with them, when it was required back again; after which it was their CUSTOM to depart, AND to meet AGAIN at a common but innocent meal,(So after they had worship service early morning beginning before day light, they would depart and they come back together later that same day to share a common simple meal together and most likely break bread together as other early church writers give more detail) which they had left off upon that edict which I published at your command, and wherein I had forbidden any such conventicles (Or religious meetings).”


Below are some quotes of early church writers that clearly teach us that the early church did NOT keep the Sabbath day, as in, on SATURDAY, the 7th day of the week, but rather the early church throughout history from it's beginning worshiped God on SUNDAY the FIRST day of the week, which is sometimes referred to as the EIGHTH day of the week or the day AFTER the Sabbath day, or the LORD'S DAY. (The emphasis is mine in these quotes given below):

The year AD or date is given first and then the source is given at the end followed by the quote from that historical source. The Apostle John was still alive until 100 AD.


#1. 90 AD DIDACHE:

"Christian Assembly on the Lord's Day:


1. But every Lord's day do ye gather yourselves together, and break bread, and give thanksgiving after having confessed your transgressions, that your sacrifice may be pure.

2. But let no one that is at variance with his fellow come together with you, until they be reconciled, that your sacrifice may not be profaned.

3. For this is that which was spoken by the Lord: In every place and time offer to me a pure sacrifice; for I am a great King, saith the Lord, and my name is wonderful among the nations." (Didache: The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, Chapter XIV)


#2. 100 AD BARNABAS:


"We keep the eighth day [Sunday] with joyfulness, the day also on which Jesus rose again from the dead" (The Epistle of Barnabas, 100 AD 15:6-8).


#3. 100 AD BARNABAS:


Moreover, God says to the Jews, 'Your new moons and Sabbaths I cannot endure.' You see how he says, 'The present Sabbaths are not acceptable to me, but the Sabbath which I have made in which, when I have rested [heaven: Heb 4] from all things, I will make the beginning of the eighth day which is the beginning of another world.' Wherefore we Christians keep the eighth day for joy, on which also Jesus arose from the dead and when he appeared ascended into heaven. (15:8f, The Epistle of Barnabas, 100 AD, Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 1, pg. 147)


#4. 110 AD Pliny:


They were in the habit of meeting on a certain fixed day before it was light, when they sang in alternate verses a hymn to Christ, as to a god, and bound themselves by a solemn oath not to (do) any wicked deeds, never to commit any fraud, theft, or adultery, never to falsify their word, nor deny a trust when they should be called upon to deliver it up; after which it was their custom to separate, and then reassemble to partake of good food—but food of an ordinary and innocent kind. (About three years after the death of Ignatius in 250, an important official communication was sent from one Pliny to Trojan the Roman emperor. Pliny, the Roman governor of Bithynia, wrote of the Christians who had been congregating there probably from at least A.D. 62 onwards. In this remark, it is explicitly stated that these early Christians observed the substance of most of the Ten Commandments, and it is implied that they observed all ten as far as they were able to do so. As far as they were able, for as most of the early Christians were of slave stock or from other lower classes'-, and those who had heathen masters or employers—the vast majority—would be forced to work on THEIR day of rest, which was unfortunately an official working day throughout the empires' until Constantine's "Sabbath" Edict in 321 A.D. gave them some measure of public protection. Hence one reads that after meeting "on a certain FIXED day before it was light", the first century Bithynian Christians had "to separate"—many of them having to labor for their masters and/or employers from dawn to dusk—"and then reassemble to partake of . . . food". The "certain fixed day" [stato die"'] on which the Christians met, is regarded by Seventh-day Adventists as Saturday'-. Certainly, the expression would seem to indicate a regular day of meeting, probably each week. But Sunday is FAR more likely to have been the "certain fixed day" than Saturday. For if Pliny had been referring to the old Saturday Sabbath, as a Roman he would doubtless have referred to the "later" meeting first and only then to the morning meeting on the day after the "certain fixed day", seeing that the old Saturday Sabbath was demarcated from the evening of one day to the evening of the following day. But Pliny makes no such reference. Instead, he mentions that the pre-dawn meeting took place first—and only afterward, the later meeting; and that both meetings took place on the SAME "certain fixed day". This rather points to the Roman (and—more importantly!—New Testament) midnight to midnight demarcation of modern Sunday-keepers than to the evening to evening demarcation of the Jews and the Seventh-day Adventists.) (The Covenantal Sabbath, Francis Nigel Lee, Pg 242)


Also, I myself will further add to the comment of the writer above that mere common sense plainly teaches us that Pliny was clearly speaking of SUNDAY because the LAW that Constantine passed was not to mandate work on SUNDAY, so that these Christians could worship God on SUNDAY. So the CLAIM by the Seventh Day Advent church that the fixed day of worship for Christians was a Saturday is FALSE. Otherwise, Constantine would have made it a law that employers allow Christians off for work on a Saturday rather than on a Sunday. 

This PROVES beyond any shadow of a doubt that the Christians were ALREADY worshiping God on SUNDAY, the FIRST DAY of the week from the very beginning of the church on the day of Pentecost. The truth of the matter is that Constantine only made it easier for Christians to worship God on Sunday without being persecuted by their employers or owners by passing the EDICT making it a LAW to force heathen employers to let their employees have at least some time off from work so that they could worship God on SUNDAY. 

Every Sabbath keeper will AGREE that Constantine's “SABBATH” is referring to SUNDAY as the day of the week and NOT as Saturday being the REST for Christians. Again, all that Constantine did was to pass a law making it EASIER for Christians to worship on the DAY that they had ALREADY been worshiping on since the very beginning, at the DAY of PENTECOST, which is on SUNDAY the FIRST day of the week that Christian called the LORD'S day, the day our Lord rose from the grave. 

Open your EYES dear child of God and read what these early church writings are teaching us about the EARLIEST believers as to which day the early church worshiped God. SUNDAY has ALWAYS been the Sabbath or the day of REST of the early church and the church throughout its entire history.




-I [Christ] have come into being on the eighth day which is the day of the Lord. (18)


#6. 150 AD JUSTIN.


"He then speaks of those Gentiles, namely us, who in every place offer sacrifices to Him, i.e., the bread of the Eucharist, and also the cup of the Eucharist, affirming both that we glorify His name, and that you profane [it]. The command of circumcision, again, bidding [them] always circumcise the children on the eighth day, was a type of the true circumcision, by which we are circumcised from deceit and iniquity through Him who rose from the dead on the first day AFTER the Sabbath, [namely through] our Lord Jesus Christ. For the first day after the Sabbath, remaining the first of all the days, is called, however, the eighth, according to the number of all the days of the cycle, and [yet] remains the first." (Justin, Dialogue 41:4)


#7. 150 AD JUSTIN:


...those who have persecuted and do persecute Christ, if they do not repent, shall not inherit anything on the holy mountain. But the Gentiles, who have believed on Him, and have repented of the sins which they have committed, they shall receive the inheritance along with the patriarchs and the prophets, and the just men who are descended from Jacob, even although they neither keep the Sabbath, nor are circumcised, nor observe the feasts. Assuredly they shall receive the holy inheritance of God. (Dialogue With Trypho the Jew, 150-165 AD, Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 1, page 207)


#8. 150 AD JUSTIN:


But if we do not admit this, we shall be liable to fall into foolish opinion, as if it were not the same God who existed in the times of Enoch and all the rest, who neither were circumcised after the flesh, nor observed Sabbaths, nor any other rites, seeing that Moses enjoined such observances... For if there was no need of circumcision before Abraham, or of the observance of Sabbaths, of feasts and sacrifices, before Moses; no more need is there of them now, after that, according to the will of God, Jesus Christ the Son of God has been born without sin, of a virgin sprung from the stock of Abraham. (Dialogue With Trypho the Jew, 150-165 AD, Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 1, page 206)


#9. 150 AD JUSTIN:


Moreover, all those righteous men already mentioned [after mentioning Adam. Abel, Enoch, Lot, Noah, Melchizedek, and Abraham], though they kept no Sabbaths, were pleasing to God; and after them Abraham with all his descendants until Moses... And you [fleshly Jews] were commanded to keep Sabbaths, that you might retain the memorial of God. For His word makes this announcement, saying, "That you may know that I am God who redeemed you." (Dialogue With Trypho the Jew, 150-165 AD, Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 1, page 204)


#10. 150 AD JUSTIN.


There is no other thing for which you blame us, my friends, is there than this? That we do not live according to the Law, nor, are we circumcised in the flesh as your forefathers, nor do we observe the Sabbath as you do. (Dialogue with Trypho 10:1. In verse 3 the Jew Trypho acknowledges that Christians 'do not keep the Sabbath.')


#11. 155 AD Justin Martyr:


"[W]e too would observe the fleshly circumcision, and the Sabbaths, and in short all the feasts, if we did not know for what REASON they were enjoined [on] you--namely, on account of your transgressions and the hardness of your heart. . . . [H]ow is it, Trypho, that we would not observe those rites which do not harm us--I speak of fleshly circumcision AND Sabbaths AND feasts? . . . God enjoined you [Jews] to keep the Sabbath and impose on you other precepts for a sign, as I have already said, on account of your unrighteousness and that of your fathers" (Dialogue with Trypho the Jew 18, 21).


#12. 180 AD ACTS OF PETER:


Paul had often contended with the Jewish teachers and had confuted them (Or refuted them completely), saying 'it is Christ on whom your fathers laid hands. He abolished their Sabbath and fasts and festivals and circumcision.' (1: I)-2





Early in the morning when (the Sabbath dawned, a multitude from Jerusalem and the surrounding country came to see the scaled sepulcher. In the night in which the Lord's day dawned, while the soldiers in pairs for each watch were keeping guard, a great voice came from heaven. [There follows an account of the resurrection. Early in the morning of the Lord's day Mary Magdalene, a disciple of the Lord .... came to the sepulcher. (9:34f.; 12:50f.)





(in commenting on each of the Ten Commandments and their Christian meaning:) The seventh day is proclaimed a day of rest, PREPARING by abstention from evil FOR the Primal day, our TRUE rest. (Ibid. VII. xvi. 138.1)


I will add that the meaning of the word “Primal” means an “ARCHETYPAL” which means an original TYPE pointing to the TRUE. So this early church writer is saying what Paul teaches us in scripture that the things in the OLD Testament are TYPES and SHADOWS or the TRUE which was to come. Jesus became our SABBATH, and we have entered into our REST being in Jesus Christ. The SABBATH was an ARCHETYPAL pointing toward our TRUE REST which was to come being FULFILLED in the ATONEMENT of Jesus.





He does the commandment according to the Gospel and keeps the Lord's day, whenever he puts away an evil mind . . . glorifying the Lord's resurrection in himself. (Ibid. Vii.xii.76.4)





Plato prophetically speaks of the Lord's day in the tenth book of the Republic, in these words: 'And when seven days have passed to each of them in the meadow, on the eighth they must go on." (Miscellanies V.xiv.106.2)





Wherever we are, we are all called after the one name of Christ Christians. On one day, the first of the week, we assemble ourselves together (On Fate)




"We solemnize the day AFTER Saturday in contradistinction to those who call this day their Sabbath" (Tertullian's Apology, Ch 16)


In other words, Tertullian is saying that we Christians DISTINGUISH us from the JEWS who hold Saturday as THEIR Sabbath by solemnizing or referencing the day AFTER Saturday as our day of worship and rest.





It follows, accordingly, that, in so far as the abolition of carnal circumcision and of the old law is demonstrated as having been consummated at its specific times, so also the observance of the Sabbath is demonstrated to have been temporary. (An Answer to the Jews 4:1, Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol. 3, page 155)





Let him who contends that the Sabbath is still to be observed a balm of salvation, and circumcision on the eighth day because of the threat of death, teach us that in earliest times righteous men kept Sabbath or practiced circumcision, and so were made friends of God. .. ...Therefore, since God originated Adam uncircumcised, and inobservant of the Sabbath, consequently his offspring also, Abel, offering Him sacrifices, uncircumcised and inobservant of the Sabbath, was by Him commended... Noah also, uncircumcised - yes, and inobservant of the Sabbath - God freed from the deluge. For Enoch, too, most righteous man, uncircumcised and inobservant of the Sabbath, He translated from this world... Melchizedek also, "the priest of most high God," uncircumcised and inobservant of the Sabbath, was chosen to the priesthood of God. (An Answer to the Jews 2:10; 4:1, Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol. 3, page 153)





Others . . . suppose that the sun is the god of the Christians because it is well-known that we regard Sunday as a day of joy. (To the Nations 1: 133)


Keep in mind that this was well BEFORE Constantine SUPPOSEDLY CHANGED the day of rest and worship to Sunday as the Seventh Day Adventist church CLAIMS. But in TRUTH, Christians had ALREADY been worshiping God on Sunday, the FIRST day of the week that they also called the Lord’s Day, the day that our Lord and Savior Jesus rose from the dead. 

So, as early as Tertullian in 200 AD there were groups of JEWS and Christian JEWS who ASSUMED or who SUPPOSED, or who FALSELY ACCUSED Christians of worshiping God on SUNDAY that they were worshiping a sun god and not the true God.





To us Sabbaths are foreign. (On Idolatry, 14:6)4



#23. 220 AD ORIGEN:


"On Sunday none of the actions of the world should be done. If then, you abstain from all the works of this world and keep yourselves free for spiritual things, go to church, listen to the readings and divine homilies, meditate on heavenly things. (Homil. 23 in Numeros 4, PG 12:749)



#24. 220 AD Origen:


"Hence it is not possible that the [day of] rest after the Sabbath should have come into existence from the seventh [day] of our God. On the contrary, it is our Savior who, after the pattern of his own rest, caused us to be made in the likeness of his death, and hence also of his resurrection" (Commentary on John 2:28).



#25. 225 AD The Didascalia:


"The apostles further appointed: On the first day of the week let there be service, and the reading of the Holy Scriptures, and the oblation, because on the first day of the week our Lord rose from the place of the dead, and on the first day of the week he arose upon the world, and on the first day of the week he ascended up to heaven, and on the first day of the week he will appear at last with the angels of heaven" (Didascalia 2).


And I add further that the church BEGAN on the day of Pentecost, on a SUNDAY, the FIRST day of the week. The early church evidence and the word of TRUTH, the Holy Bible, make it quite clear that the early church worshiped God on SUNDAY the FIRST day of the week, called the LORD'S day and that they did NOT KEEP the Sabbath day as the JEWS.



#26. 250 AD CYPRIAN:


The eight day, that is, the first day after the Sabbath, and the Lord's Day." (Epistle 58, Sec 4)



#27. 250 AD IGNATIUS:


"If, therefore, those who were brought up in the ancient order of things have come to the possession of a new hope, no longer observing the Sabbath, but living in the observance of the Lord's Day, on which also our life has sprung up again by Him and by His death-whom some deny, by which mystery we have obtained faith, and therefore endure, that we may be found the disciples of Jesus Christ, our only Master-how shall we be able to live apart from Him, whose disciples the prophets themselves in the Spirit did wait for Him as their Teacher? And therefore He whom they rightly waited for, being come, raised them from the dead. If, then, those who were conversant with the ancient Scriptures came to newness of hope, expecting the coming of Christ, as the Lord teaches us when He says, "If ye had believed Moses, ye would have believed Me, for he wrote of Me; " and again, "Your father Abraham rejoiced to see My day, and he saw it and was glad; for before Abraham was, I am; " how shall we be able to live without Him? The prophets were His servants, and foresaw Him by the Spirit, and waited for Him as their Teacher, and expected Him as their Lord and Saviour, saying, "He will come and save us." Let us therefore NO longer keep the Sabbath after the Jewish manner, and rejoice in days of idleness; for "he that does not work, let him not eat." For say the [holy] oracles, "In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat thy bread." But let every one of you keep the Sabbath after a spiritual manner, rejoicing in meditation on the law, NOT in relaxation of the body, admiring the workmanship of God, and not eating things prepared the day before, nor using lukewarm drinks, and walking within a prescribed space, nor finding delight in dancing and plaudits which have no sense in them. And after the observance of the Sabbath, let every friend of Christ keep the Lord's Day as a festival, the resurrection-day, the queen and chief of all the days [of the week]. Looking forward to this, the prophet declared, "To the end, for the eighth day," on which our life both sprang up again, and the victory over death was obtained in Christ, whom the children of perdition, the enemies of the Saviour, deny, "whose god is their belly, who mind earthly things," who are "lovers of pleasure, and not lovers of God, having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof." These make merchandise of Christ, corrupting His word, and giving up Jesus to sale: they are corrupters of women, and covetous of other men's possessions, swallowing up wealth insatiably; from whom may ye be delivered by the mercy of God through our Lord Jesus Christ! (Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians, Chapter IX)



#28. 250 AD IGNATIUS:


"On the day of the preparation, then, at the third hour, He received the sentence from Pilate, the Father permitting that to happen; at the sixth hour He was crucified; at the ninth hour He gave up the ghost; and before sunset He was buried. During the Sabbath He continued under the earth in the tomb in which Joseph of Arimathaea had laid Him. At the dawning of the Lord's day He arose from the dead, according to what was spoken by Himself, "As Jonah was three days and three nights in the whale's belly, so shall the Son of man also be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. "The day of the preparation, then, comprises the passion; the Sabbath embraces the burial; the Lord's Day contains the resurrection." (The Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallians, chapter 9)



#29. 250 AD IGNATIUS:


If anyone fasts on the Lord's Day or on the Sabbath, except on the paschal Sabbath only, he is a murderer of Christ. (The Epistle of Ignatius to the Philippians, chapter 8)



#30. 250 AD IGNATIUS:


"This [custom], of not bending the knee upon Sunday, is a symbol of the resurrection, through which we have been set free, by the grace of Christ, from sins, and from death, which has been put to death under Him. Now this custom took its rise from apostolic times, as the blessed Irenaeus, the martyr and bishop of Lyons, declares in his treatise On Easter, in which he makes mention of Pentecost also; upon which [feast] we do not bend the knee, because it is of equal significance with the Lord's day, for the reason already alleged concerning it." (Ignatius, Fragments)



#31. 300 AD Victorinus:


"The sixth day [Friday] is called parasceve, that is to say, the preparation of the kingdom. . . . On this day also, on account of the passion of the Lord Jesus Christ, we make either a station to God or a fast. On the seventh day, he rested from all his works, and blessed it, and sanctified it. On the former day, we are accustomed to fast rigorously, that on the Lord's day we may go forth to our bread with giving of thanks. And let the parasceve become a rigorous fast, lest we should APPEAR to observe ANY Sabbath with the Jews . . . which Sabbath he [Christ] in his body ABOLISHED" (The Creation of the World).



#32. 300 AD EUSEBIUS:


"They did not, therefore, regard circumcision, NOR observe the Sabbath NEITHER do we; ... because such things as these do NOT belong to Christians" (Ecc. Hist., Book 1, Ch. 4)



#33. 300 AD EUSEBIUS:


[The Ebionites] were accustomed to observe the Sabbath and other Jewish customs but on the Lord's days to celebrate the same practices as we in remembrance of the resurrection of the Savior. (Church History Ill.xxvii.5)



I will also add that the Ebionites were Christians who were seduced by the Jews to keep the Jewish customs. In other words, the Ebionites were Judaized Christians. The Ebionites also taught the need to be circumcised in the flesh in order to be saved. Some today would not even consider Ebionites as being true Christians since they went back to trusting the Law of Moses to be saved.



#34. 300 AD Eusebius of Caesarea:


"They [the pre- Mosaic saints of the Old Testament] did not care about circumcision of the body, neither do we [Christians]. They did not care about observing Sabbaths, nor do we. They did not avoid certain kinds of food, neither did they regard the other distinctions which Moses first delivered to their posterity to be observed as symbols; nor do Christians of the present day do such things" (Church History 1:4:8).


#35. 300 AD Eusebius of Caesarea:


"The day of his [Christ's] light . . . was the day of his resurrection from the dead, which they say, as being the one and only truly holy day and the Lord's day, is better than any number of days as we ordinarily understand them, and better than the days set apart by the Mosaic Law for feasts, new moons, and Sabbaths, which the Apostle [Paul] teaches are the shadow of days and not days in reality" (Proof of the Gospel 4:16:186).



#36. 345 AD Athanasius:


"The Sabbath was the end of the first creation, the Lord's day was the beginning of the second, in which he renewed and restored the old in the same way as he prescribed that they should formerly observe the Sabbath as a memorial of the end of the first things, so we honor the Lord's day as being the memorial of the new creation" (On Sabbath and Circumcision 3).





Be not careless of yourselves, neither deprive your Saviour of His own members, neither divide His body nor disperse His members, neither prefer the occasions of this life to the word of God; but assemble yourselves together every day, morning and evening, singing psalms and praying in the Lord's house: in the morning saying the sixty-second Psalm, and in the evening the hundred and fortieth, but principally on the Sabbath-day. And on the day of our Lord's resurrection, which is the Lord's day, meet more diligently, sending praise to God that made the universe by Jesus, and sent Him to us, and condescended to let Him suffer, and raised Him from the dead. Otherwise what apology will he make to God who does not assemble on that day to hear the saving word concerning the resurrection, on which we pray thrice standing in memory of Him who arose in three days, in which is performed the reading of the prophets, the preaching of the Gospel, the oblation of the sacrifice, the gift of the holy food? (Constitutions of the Holy Apostles, book 2)





"How We Ought to Assemble Together and to Celebrate the Festival Day of Our Saviour's Resurrection. On the day of the resurrection of the Lord, that is, the Lord's day, assemble yourselves together, without fail, giving thanks to God, and praising Him for those mercies God has bestowed upon you through Christ and has delivered you from ignorance, error, and bondage, that your sacrifice may be unspotted, and acceptable to God,..." (Constitutions of the Holy Apostles, book 7)



#39. 350 AD Cyril of Jerusalem:


"Fall NOT AWAY either into the sect of the Samaritans or into Judaism, for Jesus Christ has henceforth ransomed you. Stand aloof from ALL observance of Sabbaths and from calling any indifferent meats common or unclean" (Catechetical Lectures 4:37).



#40. 360 AD Council of Laodicea:


"Christians should NOT Judaize and should NOT be idle on the Sabbath, but should work on that day; they should, however, particularly reverence the Lord's day and, if possible, not work on it, because they were Christians" (canon 29).



#41. 387 AD John Chrysostom:


"You have put on Christ, you have become a member of the Lord and been enrolled in the heavenly city, and you still grovel in the Law [of Moses]? How is it possible for you to obtain the kingdom? Listen to Paul's words, that the observance of the Law overthrows the gospel, and learn, if you will, how this comes to pass, and tremble, and shun this pitfall. Why do you keep the Sabbath and fast with the Jews?" (Homilies on Galatians 2:17).


#42. 412 AD Augustine:


"Well, now, I should like to be told what there is in these Ten Commandments, except the observance of the Sabbath, which ought NOT to be kept by a Christian . . . Which of these commandments would anyone say that the Christian ought not to keep? It is possible to contend that it is not the Law which was written on those two tables that the apostle [Paul] describes as 'the letter that kills' [2 Cor. 3:6], but the law of circumcision and the other sacred rites which are now abolished" (The Spirit and the Letter 24).


#43. 597 AD Gregory I:


"But after that, the grace of Almighty God, our Lord Jesus Christ, has appeared, the commandments of the Law which were spoken figuratively cannot be kept according to the letter. For if anyone says that this about the Sabbath is to be kept, he must need to say that carnal sacrifices are to be offered. He must say too that the commandment about the circumcision of the body is still to be retained. But let him hear the apostle Paul saying in opposition to him: 'If you be circumcised, Christ will profit you nothing' (Gal. 5:2)" (Letters 13:1).



Thanks for reading and may God bless you richly as you continue to read ALL the studies I gave links to at the beginning of this study concerning this subject on Sabbath TRUTH. I will post them again below. Also below are some quotes from early church writers that prove beyond any shadow of a doubt that the early church did not keep the seventh day of the week as the Jews.


Your brother in our Lord Jesus Christ,

Brother Mark.