1 JOHN 5:7 – These THREE are ONE!
Does 1 John 5:7 teach us that Almighty God is a “TRINITY”? Does this verse teach us that Jesus is ONE with Almighty God the Father, as in, Jesus being ONE and the SELF SAME BEING as Almighty God the Father? In other words, does 1 John 5:7 teach us that Jesus is the ONE TRUE and ONLY ALMIGHTY God?
Let us begin this study in God word by first reading this verse in the CONTEXT of where it is found. Please read 1 John 5:1-13.
“Whosoever believes that Jesus is THE CHRIST (or whosoever believes that Jesus the SON OF almighty God has been ANOINTED BY his God and Father) is born of God: and every one that loves him that begot loves him ALSO that is begotten of him. (The Bible teaches us that we must believe in BOTH Almighty God the Father AND in his SON Jesus in order to obtain eternal life in the world to come. This is interesting to ME, because I find nowhere in the word of TRUTH, the Holy Bible where we are clearly and plainly taught to believe in THREE, but rather we are clearly and plainly taught to believe in the TWO, Almighty God the Father, AND in his SON Jesus. More on this further on in this study of God's word.)
6. This is he that came by water and blood, even Jesus Christ;(or Jesus the ANOINTED ONE of Almighty God the Father) not by water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit that bears witness, because the Spirit is truth. (water and blood represent the body of flesh of Jesus that the Spirit of Almighty God the Father DWELT IN. And these three AGREE in ONE. More on this further on in this study.)
7. For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these THREE ARE ONE. (Now this verse is INTERPRETED by those who teach the doctrine of the trinity that Almighty God the Father, Jesus the SON OF Almighty God the Father, and the Holy Spirit OF Almighty God the Father are THREE SEPARATE persons, but yet these THREE ARE ONE, as in, ONE and the SELFSAME ALMIGHTY God. In other words, the Father IS ALMIGHTY God, Jesus the SON OF almighty God IS THE ALMIGHTY God HIMSELF, and the Holy Spirit IS ONE and the SELF SAME BEING as ALMIGHTY God the FATHER. But is this what the WHOLE word of Almighty God teaches us? The answer to this question will be answered as you continue this study in God's word.)
8. And there are three that bear witness in earth, the Spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three AGREE in ONE. (clear these three different elements of Spirit , water and blood are NOT ONE in that they are ONE and the SELFSAME element, but rather that they are UNITED together and the AGREE as ONE. The Greek word “HEIS or HEN” that is used here in verse 8 is the same exact Greek word “HEIS or HEN” that is used in verse 7 that is TRANSLATED as “...and these three ARE ONE” rather than “...and these three AGREE as ONE.” So the question become WHY? Why did the TRANSLATORS choose NOT to translated verse 7 as “...and these three AGREE as ONE”?)
So then, from the CONTEXT of this verse in question we clearly and plainly see that Jesus is NOT ONE and the SELF SAME BEING as his FATHER. In other words, Jesus is NOT the FATHER and Almighty God the Father is NOT his SON Jesus. Over and over in the context here and throughout the New Testament we are CLEARLY taught the Jesus is the SON OF Almighty God the Father.
Therefore to ME, I myself can see the Greek word “HEIS or HEN” being interpreted ONLY as being in AGREEMENT as ONE, because to ME being ONE and the self same being would mean that Jesus IS the FATHER and Almighty God the Father IS HIS SON Jesus and we know from the CONTEXT and the REST of God's word that this CANNOT be true.
The first rule of INTERPRETATION is to KEEP the verse is question in the CONTEXT of where it is found and let the CONTEXT teach us the true meaning of the verse in question, which we just did, and we found that Jesus is the SON OF Almighty God the Father, and therefore cannot be ONE and the SELF SAME BEING as Almighty God the Father, because clearly and plainly the WHOLE word of Almighty God teaches us that we must believe in BOTH Almighty God the Father, AND in HIS SON Jesus in order to receive eternal life in the world to come. So the doctrine of the trinity has at least one thing correct in saying that Jesus is NOT the FATHER and Almighty God the Father is NOT HIS SON Jesus.
The TRUTH of the matter is that when we COMPARE scripture with scripture and let scripture interpret itself we find that in most ever instance this Greek word “HEIS or HEN” when left in the CONTEXT always means to be ONE in AGREEMENT and UNITED as opposed to be ONE in BEING or a SINGLE BEING.
Let us now take a look at a couple of these other verses where this SAME exact Greek word “HEIS of HEN” is used. Please read John 10:30 in the context of where it is found.
“Therefore does my Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I might take it again.
18. No man takes it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again (Jesus has this power or authority to lay down his like or NOT to lay down his life because God gave his SON his OWN WILL to choose freely for himself to obey his Father and lay down his life or disobey his Father's WILL by not laying down his life. Also Almighty God placed a JOY before his Son that if Jesus became OBEDIENT unto death on the cross HIS God and Father would not only raise his SON back to life, but also would GIVE his SON IMMORTALITY even as the Father himself has always had immortality AND Almighty God would HIGHLY EXALT his Son to sit on his Father's throne to rule and reign at his Father's right hand. Now those who teach that Jesus IS THE ALMIGHTY God INTERPRET this verse to mean that Jesus HIMSELF would raise HIMSELF from the dead. IF SO BE that this INTERPRETATION is true, then it should be known that ALL the POWER that Jesus has was GIVEN TO him BY HIS God and Father THE ALMIGHTY God. Please read the study “Does John 2:19 teach that Jesus raised himself?”). This commandment have I received OF my Father.
19. There was a division therefore again among the Jews for these sayings.
20. And many of them said, He has a devil, and is mad; why hear you him? (there we see that many of the JEWS were FALSELY ACCUSING Jesus of having a DEVIL and then in verse 33 below some of these same JEWS again FALSELY ACCUSE Jesus of making himself to be Almighty God HIMSELF)
21. Others said, These are not the words of him that has a devil. Can a devil open the eyes of the blind? (but some of the Jews were starting to believe that Almighty God was indeed WITH this MAN Jesus because of the WORKS of healing that Jesus was doing through or by the power of Almighty God the Father DWELLING IN him)
22. And it was at Jerusalem the feast of the dedication, and it was winter.
23. And Jesus walked in the temple in Solomon's porch.
24. Then came the Jews round about him, and said unto him, How long dost thou make us to doubt? If you be THE CHRIST, tell us plainly.
25. Jesus answered them, I told you, and you believed not:(Jesus told them at the very beginning of his ministry when he went into the synagogue and read Isaiah saying that Almighty God had ANOINTED him to preach the gospel. Please see Luke 4:1-30) the WORKS that I do in my Father's NAME, they bear witness of me. (you see, Almighty God the Father DWELLING IN his Son Jesus bore WITNESS that Jesus was SENT BY Almighty God and the Almighty God was WITH the MAN Jesus. The truth of the matter is that Jesus was THE CHRIST or the ANOINTED ONE of Almighty God. Please click on the link to read the study "JESUS THE CHRIST" for a deeper understanding of how Jesus did the works that he did.)
27. My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me:
28. And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand.
29. My Father, which GAVE them me, is GREATER than ALL (including his SON Jesus); and no man is able to pluck them out of my Father's hand.
30. I and my Father are ONE. (Jesus and his God and father are ONE in that Jesus obeyed his God and Father to do the WORKS that Almighty God the Father SENT his SON to do. Jesus and the Father are ONE in that they AGREE as ONE working for the SAME purpose. This how Jesus and we as well are IN the Father. We seek to do the WILL of God by obeying his word and the eternal Spirit that DWELLS IN us. Almighty God the FATHER HIMSELF DWELL IN US as believers just as the Father DWELT IN his SON Jesus to do the works and TESTIFY or WITNESS that his Son who was he said he was the SON OF Almighty God the Father and the Son of MAN.)
33. The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone you not; but for blasphemy; and because that you, being a MAN, make yourself God. (the Jews CLEARLY saw Jesus as being a MAN and they were FALSELY ACCUSING Jesus of making HIMSELF to be THE ONE TRUE and ONLY ALMIGHTY God the FATHER because Jesus simply said that he was the SON OF Almighty God. But Jesus speaks to his DEFENSE in the following verses saying that the very word of Almighty God himself says the YOU speaking of mankind are called gods, which simply means mighty ones who have been GIVEN authority over something by the Almighty God who created us. Also remember that some of these same Jesus just got through FALSELY ACCUSING Jesus of having a DEVIL. See verse 20 in this very CONTEXT.)
34 Jesus answered them, Is it not WRITTEN in your law, I said, YOU are gods?
35. If he called them gods, unto whom the word of God came, and the scripture cannot be broken;
36. Say you of him, whom the Father has sanctified, and SENT into the world, You blaspheme; because I said, I am the SON OF God?
37. If I do not the works OF my Father, believe me not.
38. But if I do, though you believe not me, believe the WORKS: that you may KNOW, and BELIEVE, that the Father is IN me, and I in him.
39. Therefore they sought again to take him: but he escaped out of their hand,”
So then, what have we learned from the CONTEXT of John 10:30?
We have learned that Jesus was FALSELY ACCUSED of having a DEVIL as well as Jesus was FALSELY ACCUSED of making HIMSELF to be GOD. And we also learned that in BOTH of these FALSE ACCUSATIONS that Jesus DEFENDED himself saying that he did NOT have a devil and that he was NOT making himself o be God or EQUAL with God.
Number one Jesus himself said that the Father is GREATER than ALL, which we KNOW Jesus was saying that the Father is GREATER than the SON, because in John 14:28 Jesus spells this truth out for us in CLEAR, PLAIN, and SIMPLE words that do NOT need any interpretation whatsoever to clearly understand.
“You have heard how I said unto you, I go away, and come again unto you. If you loved me, you would rejoice, because I said, I go unto the Father: for my Father is GREATER than I.”
So CLEARLY Jesus never considered himself to be EQUAL with his God and Father who is THE ONE TRUE and ONLY ALMIGHTY SOVEREIGN WISE and LIVING INVISIBLE God, who ALONE has IMMORTALITY as we are clearly taught in 1 Timothy 6:14-16 which says,
“That you KEEP this commandment (or that you HOLD FAST to this principle or TEACHING)without spot, UNREBUKABLE, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ:
15. Which in his times (speaking of the first and second comings of Jesus) he shall show, (or Jesus shall show us the FATHER), who is the blessed and ONLY Potentate,(meaning that Almighty God the FATHER is the ONLY ALMIGHTY SOVEREIGN God who is GREATER than ALL and who is) the King of kings, and Lord of lords;
16. Who ONLY has IMMORTALITY (speaking of who ONLY has always possessed immortality withing himself being the self existing one never BEGOTTEN, never created, but rather has ALWAYS existed as an ETERNAL SPIRIT that is INVISIBLE), dwelling in the light which NO man can approach unto; whom NO man has SEEN, NOR CAN SEE: (but yet men HAVE SEEN Jesus who is the SON OF Almighty God the Father and who is the EXPRESS IMAGE OF his God and Father.)to whom be honor and power everlasting. Amen.”
Almighty God the Father is a SPIRIT who is INVISIBLE and therefore can NOT be SEEN with the human physical eye. But yet MEN did indeed SEE the SON OF almighty God the Father who was the EXPRESS IMAGE of the character of HIS God and Father. Now some may try and argue that Jesus himself IS the ONLY POTENTATE, simply because Jesus is called the King of Kings, and the Lord of lords. While this fact is indeed true, it is NOT the WHOLE truth of the WHOLE word of God, for you see Almighty God the FATHER is THE KING, who then MADE or HIGHLY EXALTED his SON Jesus to BE “a” King of kings. Those who teach the doctrine of the trinity also use verse where BOTH Almighty God the Father and his SON Jesus say the SAME THINGS like “I am the first and the last” or “I am the Alpha and the Omega” and dogmatically demand that this proves without a doubt the Jesus IS ALMIGHTY God HIMSELF. But the truth of the matter is that Almighty God the Father is the God and Father OF his SON Jesus, and Jesus came to REPRESENT his God and Father to SHOW us the FATHER. Please read the study “Revelation 17:20 WHO IS THE KING OF KINGS?” for a deeper understanding that Almighty God the Father HIGHLY EXALTED his SON Jesus to BECOME the A King of kings, but Jesus is NOT THE King over his God and Father the one true and only ALMIGHTY KING over ALL including his SON Jesus.
“I and my Father are ONE (the English word ONE here is TRANSLATED from the Greek word HEIS or HEN)”?
Quite simply the Greek word “HEIS of HEN” that is TRANSLATED into English as the word “ONE” means to be UNITED as ONE and to AGREE as ONE. This same Greek word used in John 10:30 is also used in the following verses where we can clearly see the meaning of UNITY of TWO separate persons AGREEING as ONE and being UNITED as ONE, but yet remaining as TWO distinct individual separate persons:
#1. Matthew 19:3-9.
4. And he answered and said unto them, Have you not read, that he which made them at the beginning made them MALE and FEMALE,(just as a side journey MARRIAGE as instituted by ALMIGHTY God HIMSELF the CREATOR of ALL clearly and plainly states in his word of TRUTH, the Holy Bible, that MARRIAGE is clearly defined as ONE MAN becoming UNITED together with ONE FEMALE. Almighty God never intended a man to marry another man nor a woman to many another woman. The TRUTH of the matter is that it is SIN for a man to have sex with another man and a woman to have sex with another woman. Please read the study “IS SAME SEX MARRIAGE BIBLICAL?”)
5. And said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain (or the TWO) shall be ONE flesh (in that they become UNITED in marriage to live together as ONE couple or family and NOT that they LITERALLY become ONE and the selfsame PERSON. Now when a husband and wife come together to have a baby then the two literally produce ONE flesh or multiple babies in case of twins or triplets. But I myself do not see that this is what Jesus is speaking of in the CONTEXT of this passage of scripture which deals with MARRIAGE and DIVORCE)?
6. Wherefore they are NO more twain, but ONE FLESH (or in other words, the husband and wife are NO more TWO who are SINGLE, as in, being NOT UNITED together in MARRIAGE, but now the TWO have become UNITED as ONE person coming together in AGREEMENT for the same purpose and goal. This is what the Greek word “HEIS or HEN” means as being ONE). What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder.
9. And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his WIFE, except it be for fornication,(where the WIFE commits adultery and the husband has always been FAITHFUL NOT to commit adultery then according to the law of Moses and Jesus the MAN ONLY is allowed to put away or divorce his unfaithful adulterous wife and remarry. But the wife must remain single and never ave sex with anyone, because she will be committing adultery as well as causing those whom she is having sex with to commit adultery as well. This is my own personal understanding of what this passage of scripture means to ME. Now the reverse of this I myself believe is equally as true. In other words if the WIFE is the one who has remained FAITHFUL and the HUSBAND is the one who has committed adultery, the the wife is free to divorce her husband and remarry, but the man must remain single and never have sex again lest he commit adultery and cause the woman he marries to commit adultery as well. Again this is what I MYSELF understand this passage of scripture to mean. Therefore for ME it would be a SIN if lets says my wife died and I knowingly and willing married another woman whom I KNEW was divorced OTHER than the reason of her husband cheating on HER while she herself remained faithful not to ever commit adultery. Again this is my OWN PERSONAL opinion.) and shall marry another, commits adultery: and whoso marries HER which is put away does commit adultery.”
This same Greek word “HEIS or HEN” that is used in John 10:30. where Jesus said,
“I and my Father are ONE (HEIS or HEN)”
Is also used by Jesus in John 17: when Jesus was praying to HIS God and Father for US to be ONE WITH the FATHER in the very SAME WAY that Jesus and the Father are ONE. In other words, IF SO BE that Jesus truly meant that he was ONE and the SAME BEING as ALMIGHTY God the Father, then WE as Christians are ALSO ONE and the SAME BEING as ALMIGHTY God the Father or we will become to be ONE and the SAME BEING as ALMIGHTY God the Father, IF SO BE, Jesus TRULY meant that he himself was ONE and the SAME BEING as his God and Father the ONE TRUE and ONLY ALMIGHTY God.
But as we have already seen from Matthew 19:3-9 that this Greek word “HEIS or HEN” means to be UNITED and ONE where TWO come together in UNITY to AGREE as ONE.
#2. John 17:1-24
“These words spoke Jesus, and lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, Father, the hour is come; glorify your SON, that your SON also may glorify you: (here we see Jesus the SON OF Almighty God the Father praying TO his God and Father. So clearly they are TWO separate persons being Almighty God the FATHER and his SON Jesus where Jesus the SON is NOT the Father and Almighty God the FATHER is NOT his SON Jesus.)
2. As YOU have GIVEN him power over all flesh, that he should give eternal life to as many as you have given him (in other words, Almighty God the Father GAVE TO his SON the POWER to raise the dead because God desires and even commands us to HONOR the SON EVEN AS or in the SAME WAY that we HONOR the ONE TRUE and ONLY ALMIGHTY God the FATHER.)
3. And THIS IS life eternal, THAT they might KNOW YOU the only true God(Jesus came to SHOW us the FATHER to be the ONLY POTENTATE who ONLY has always had IMMORTALITY to be the ONE TRUE and ONLY ALMIGHTY God who ALONE is the FATHER), AND Jesus Christ, whom YOU HAVE SENT. (Jesus never claimed to be the ALMIGHTY God. Jesus never ever made himself equal to his God and Father. Jesus always gave all the glory for who he was and what he had to his God and Father. And Jesus taught us that it is his Father's will that we must believe in the SON in order to have the Father. In other words, we MUST believe in BOTH in order to receive eternal life in the world to come. Therefore Jesus is NOT one with the Father in that Jesus IS the the ONE TRUE and ONLY ALMIGHTY God the FATHER).
5. And now, O Father, glorify you me with your own self with the glory which I had with you before the world was. (now some INTERPRET this verse to dogmatically mean that Jesus preexisted with Almighty God for all eternity never having a beginning. But to ME, the truth of the matter is that Jesus READ the word of God and the Holy Spirit lead and guided Jesus to the truth that the scripture spoke of him and being the CHRIST who was PROPHESIED to come. And Jesus saw the end from the BEGINNING and how he was brought up as one being with the Father before the world was. In other words, Jesus saw the glory that his God and Father desired to GIVEN to his Son for all eternity even before God ever had a Son or even before the world was ever created. You see, God made all this FOR the SAKE of his SON through or by speaking forth his own thoughts to form the IMAGE of what God was thinking in the form of his spoken WORD, which would then BECOME the EXPRESSED IMAGE of what God was desiring to BE. That is to say that Jesus came OUT FROM Almighty God's THOUGHTS to one day bring forth his only begotten SON into the world as the Son of MAN)
7. Now they have known that all things whatsoever YOU have GIVEN me are OF YOU.(If you read the word of God carefully and prayerfully you will clearly see that everything Jesus is or has was GIVEN TO him BY HIS God and Father the ONE TRUE and ONLY ALMIGHTY God. ALL the GLORY goes TO the FATHER who has created ALL things for HIS PLEASURE and one of the things that pleased Almighty God was to BEGET himself a SON and not just one Son but many more sons and daughters THROUGH his ONLY UNIQUELY BEGOTTEN SON Jesus. And Almighty God LOVES US with the SAME LOVE that he loves his SON Jesus and desires us ALL to be ONE with his EVEN AS Jesus is ONE with Almighty God the Father.)
8. For I have given unto them the words which you GAVE me; and they have received them, and have known surely that I came OUT FROM YOU, and they have believed that thou didst send me.(so clearly we all agree that Jesus came OUT FROM the very BEING of Almighty God and that it was the very self same spoken WORD OF Almighty God the was MADE or BECAME a HUMAN BEING in whom Almighty God himself DWELT IN to empower his SON Jesus to do the works that he SENT his SON to do AFTER his SON was BORN into the world as the Son of MAN. In other words, the SON did NOT actually come into existence as the SON OF Almighty God UNTIL the SON was BEGOTTEN of the Father into the world as both the Son of God and the Son of MAN leaving behind any and all deity or divine nature that the word was BEFORE the Word was MADE FLESH. Please read “PHILIPPIANS 2:6 ATRINITARIAN DILEMMA!”)
11. And now I am no more in the world, but these are in the world, and I come to you. Holy Father, KEEP through your own name those whom you have GIVEN me, that (or so that) THEY may be ONE, AS WE ARE ONE. (so then, Jesus is either praying that we ALL become ALMIGHTY God the Father, OR Jesus is praying that we ALL may be found FAITHFUL so that Almighty God the Father will GIVE us IMMORTALITY ever AS the Father GAVE his SON Jesus the RIGHT to partake of the tree of life, BECAUSE his SON Jesus became obedient unto death on the cross and OVER CAME the enemy)
14. I have given them YOUR word; and the world has hated them, because THEY are NOT OF the world, EVEN AS I am NOT of the world. (this simply means that we are called to be SEPARATE and to live without sin just as Jesus lived without sin, because we have been spiritually translated into the kingdom of Almighty God and his SON Jesus.)
16. THEY are NOT OF of the world, EVEN AS I am NOT OF the world. (some Christians interpret that Jesus came FROM HEAVEN and therefore was NOT OF this world, but here we see that WE are not of this world in the SAME WAY that Jesus was NOT OF this world. Now I myself do NOT ever recall ever preexisting with God in heaven from the beginning like some dogmatically demand that Jesus did simple because Jesus said of himself that he was NOT OF this world.)
18. AS you have SENT me into the world, even so have I also SENT them into the world. (now Jesus did NOT send US FROM HEAVEN INTO the world, but rather Jesus sent us OUT into the world, but yet when some read where God SENT his SON INTO the world, then they INTERPRET this to dogmatically mean that God sent his Son FROM heaven DOWN to the earth INTO the world and thus prove that Jesus was co eternal with Almighty God and never have a beginning.)
21. That they ALL (speaking of EVERY BELIEVER in Jesus Christ) may beONE; AS YOU, Father, ARE IN ME, and I IN you, that THEY ALSO may be ONE IN US: that (or so that) the world may believe that you have SENT me. (the SAME Greek word “HEIS or HEN” is used here as it is in John 10:30 AND 1 John 5:7 where Jesus said “I and my Father ARE ONE.” and “these three ARE ONE.”)
22. And the glory which you GAVE me I have given them; THAT (or so that or in order that) THEY (Speaking of EVERY BELIEVER in Jesus Christ) may be ONE (HEIS or HEN), EVEN AS WE ARE ONE: (so then, Jesus HIMSELF is praying that WE as Christian to be ONE with Almighty God the Father and his SON Jesus in the exact same way that Jesus and the Father ARE ONE right now. So then. IF you INTERPRET John 10:30 to dogmatically mean without fail the Jesus HIMSELF IS THE ONE TRUE and ONLY ALMIGHTY God the FATHER, then you must ALSO INTERPRET John 17:1-24 in the exact same way, which would then make US TO BE THE ALMIGHTY God the Father as well. But I MYSELF do NOT interpret either passage of scripture a ONE meaning being ONE and the SAME being, but rather than being ONE means that we are UNITED as ONE where TWO or more come together to be ONE in AGREEMENT. This is what the Greek word in the original text means, to AGREE as ONE UNITED together for the same purpose.
23. I in them, and you in me, that they may be made perfect in ONE; (we ALL are made to be ONE by walking in LOVE and in AGREEMENT being UNITED as ONE, but NOT being ONE and the SAME BEING. We are all mad to be a PART of the SAME body of Christ and we have ALL been GIVEN the SAME AUTHORITY in the NAME of Jesus, but we are NOT all ONE and the SAME BEING) and that the world may know that you have SENT me, and have loved them,(speaking of Almighty God LOVING US as believers) AS you have loved me.
24. Father, I will that they also, whom YOU have GIVEN me, be with me where I am; that they may behold my glory, which you have GIVEN me: for you loved me BEFORE the foundation of the world (now some Christians interpret this to mean that Jesus preexisted as a spirit SON of Almighty God who was BY his Father;s side before Jesus created the world and all things. But to ME the TRUTH of the matter is that Jesus only existed in the mind, plan, and desires of Almighty God BEFORE Almighty God created or recreated the world to one day on a certain day in the future to have a SON. Please read the study “DID JESUS HAVE A BEGINNING”, but the thing that I want you to see right now is that everything that Jesus is or has was GIVEN TO him BY HIS God and Father the ALMIGHTY God.).”
So then, it is made crystal clear to us that “ONE” hear is all these verses does NOT mean ONE and the SELF SAME BEING, but rather means to be in AGREEMENT as ONE who are UNITY as ONE but still yet remain TWO SEPARATE beings.
Now part 2 of this study in God's word will deal with the argument among Bible scholars that 1 John 5:7 was ADDED to the original Greek text. Let us begin this section by simple reading some other translations of the Bible where verse 7 does NOT appear.
Here are several translations of the Bible that have either deliberately OMITTED the last part of verse 7. OR they have chosen NOT to ADD something that was NOT in the manuscript from which they were translating. The truth of the matter is that there are over 5000 Greek manuscripts and ONLY 8 of these manuscripts have the ADDED last portion of verse 7 where the vast majority of these Greek manuscripts have nothing in them that say, “the Father the Son and the Holy Ghost these three are one”, But rather the majority of these Greek manuscripts simple say, “There are three that testify:”
1 John 5:7 from the New International Version (NIV)
“For there are three that testify:”
1 John 5:7 from the New Living Translation (NLT)
“So we have these three witnesses --”
1 John 5:7 from the New Revised Standard (NRS)
“There are three that testify:”
1 John 5:7 from the New American Standard (NAS)
“For there are three that testify:”
1 John 5:7 from the Common English Bible (CEB)
“The three are testifying-”
1 John 5:7 from the Complete Jewish Bible (CJB)
“There are three witnesses -”
1 John 5:7 from the English Standard Version (ESV)
“For there are three that testify:”
1 John 5:7 from the God's Word Translation (GWT)
“For there are three that testify:”
1 John 5:7 from the Good News Translation (GNT)
“There are three witnesses:”
1 John 5:7 from the Holman Christian Standard (CSB)
“For there are three that testify:”
1 John 5:7 from the Lexham English Bible (LEB)
“For there are three that testify:”
1 John 5:7 from the New English Translation (NET)
“For there are three that testify,”
1 John 5:7 from the Darby Translation (DBY)
“For they that bear witness are three:”
1 John 5:7 from the Today's New International Version (TNIV)
“For there are three that testify:”
1 John 5:7 from the New Century Version (NCV)
“So there are three witnesses that tell us about Jesus:”
1 John 5:7 from the New International Reader's Version (NIRV)
“There are three that give witness about Jesus.”
1 John 5:7 from the American Standard Version (ASV)
“And it is the Spirit that beareth witness, because the Spirit is the truth.”
1 John 5:7 from the Bible in Basic English (BBE)
“And the Spirit is the witness, because the Spirit is true.”
1 John 5:7 from the Hebrews Name Version (HNV)
“It is the Spirit who bears witness, because the Spirit is the truth.”
1 John 5:7 from the Revised Standard Version (RSV)
“And the Spirit is the witness, because the Spirit is the truth.”
1 John 5:7 from the World English Bible (WEB)
“It is the Spirit who bears witness, because the Spirit is the truth.”
1 John 5:7 from the Weymouth New Testament
“For there are three that give testimony-- the Spirit, the water, and the blood;”
The King James Version is translation from what Bible Scholars call the “Texus Receptus” which is Latin for the “Received Text” or the Greek Text which some Bible Scholars accept as the only true manuscript. So the argument by King James ONLY advocates is that ONLY the Bibles that are translated from the Textus Receptus are received as true translations of the Bible, and more particularly ONLY the King James Version can be trusted. The King James only advocates claim that all the other Greek manuscripts have OMITTED in many places words from the original text.
My OWN personal OPINION is that in SOME instances I do agree that many “MODERN” translations of today have indeed OMITTED many words, phrases, and even whole verses that are NOT found in the King James Version, which was translated from the “TEXTUS RECEPTUS” manuscript.
Now whether or NOT they were OMITTED by these translations, OR whether they were ADDED by the King James Translation or more precisely whether or not they were ADDED to the “TEXTUS RECEPTUS” I myself cannot say, because I am not a Greek scholar. I am only reporting to you the reader and seeker of the truth the evidence that I myself have come across in my research.
BUT this one thing I do know, that whether they are ADDED or they are OMITTED, whatever meaning to the WHOLE word of God they ADD or TAKE AWAY must AGREE with the WHOLE word of Almighty God.
In other words, since the doctrine of the trinity is NOT clearly and plain taught throughout the WHOLE word of Almighty God, but rather the trinity of THREE is ONLY clearly seen in 1 John 5:7, then I myself have concluded that in this case it seems very apparent that the last part of this verse was ADDED to the text as opposed to have been omitted by the other translations of the Bible. And I say this as being a faithful reader of the King James Version of the Bible. I myself recommend the King James Version over every other translation. I have found many flaws in these more modern translations. Please read the study “WHY THE KING JAMES VERSION?”.
However, when it comes to this particular verse there is definitely some “monkey shine” or “monkey business” going on. That is to say there most definitely seems to be some BIAS manipulation and TAMPERING of the original text taking place when it comes to the doctrine of the trinity.
Never the less, whether ADDED or OMITTED it does not matter when the reader and seeker of the TRUTH reads and studies each verse in the LIGHT of the WHOLE word of Almighty God and depends upon the Holy Spirit to lead and guide them into all truth. Every verse that is used by those who teach the doctrine of the trinity can be clearly explained in another way that does NOT CONTRADICT any other part of God's word like that doctrine of the trinity does over and over.
For you see, when the Greek word “HEIS or HEN” that is used in John 10:30 and 1 John 5:7 is TRANSLATED as ARE ONE and then INTERPRETED to dogmatically mean that Jesus is ONE and the SELF SAME BEING as Almighty God the Father, as in EQUAL in every way where neither is GREATER than nor less than the other, then this definitely CONTRADICTS another part of God;s word where Jesus himself clearly and plainly states that his God and Father is GREAT than himself.
But on the other hand if we compared the use of the Greek word “HEIS or HEN” with the rest of God's word, then the MEANING of this Greek word is CLEARLY seen as meaning UNITY, where two or more come together being UNITED as ONE in AGREEMENT and SINGLENESS of mind and purpose.
In other words, once again John 10:30 and 1 John 5:7, IF SO BE it was NOT ADDED would be more accurately translated as follows:
“I and my Father AGREE as ONE.(heis or hen)”
“For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three AGREE as ONE. (heis or hen)
8. And there are three that bear witness in earth, the Spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three AGREE in ONE. (heis or hen)”
And the reason that I say this is because this is the very MEANING of the Greek word “HEIS”or HEN”.
Here is what the Strong's Exhaustive Concordance says;
Strong's #1520 heis, which means one, single, first, agree,
Strong's #1775 henotes, which means unity.
Compare to Strong's #3391, mia, which means one, single.
Now this Greek word "MIA" seems to have to meaning as a SINGLE being, but this word also can mean AGREE as one.
The following definitions are taken from the Expanded Strong's Concordance. And like any good dictionary EXAMPLES are given in CONTEXT to convey different variations of what the word means in the context.
Definition 1. One in contrast to many. For example Matthew 25:15; Romans 5:18, “the offense of ONE”.
Definition 2. Metaphorically this Greek word means “UNION” and “CONCORD”. For example John 10:30.
Definition 3a. Single, excluding all others. Matthew 21:14
Definition 3b. One alone. Mark 2:7 Only Mark 10:18, Luke 18:19.
Definition 3c. One and the same. Romans 3:30 “God is one” That is to say there is NOT one God for the Jews and a different one God for the Gentiles, but rather they are one and the same God.
Also under definition 3c we see the true meaning of 1 John 5:7, which is literally “and the three are INTO ONE”. That is to say, UNITED IN ONE, the SAME WITNESS.
Definition 4. A certain one.
Definition 5. One, each other, one another, each, every one.
Definition 6. First, “first day of the week”.
So then, in the very definition of the Greek word “HEIS or HEN” we clearly see that John 10:30 is specifically chosen as and EXAMPLE to mean that Jesus the Son and his Father are ONE in that they are in UNION and CONCORD with each other. The word “CONCORD” means harmony agreement of interests, being in one accord. The root meaning of this word is being of the SAME MIND.
Jesus conformed his OWN will to BE the WILL of his Father. Jesus was TEMPTED NOT to do the Father;s WILL, but after Jesus AGONIZED in prayer Jesus said NOT MY WILL, but YOUR WILL be done. Jesus made his EYE of his FOCUS to be on not what he wanted, but what hos God and Father wanted. Jesus said in Matthew 6:21-24 that our eye or our vision or our view, the direction we are look toward, our FOCUS must be SINGLE.
“For WHERE your treasure is, there will your HEART be also.
22. The light of the body is the eye (or what we have in VIEW with be the light that guide us): if therefore your eye (or your viewer you point of focus) be SINGLE, your whole body shall be full of light.
23. But if your eye be evil (looking at the things of the old man or the things of the world), you whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in you be darkness, how great is that darkness!
24. No man can serve TWO masters (in other words, we cannot serve the devil and sin and also serve Almighty God and his Son Jesus. We must choose whom we shall serve): for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon.”
The word “mammon”means riches, wealth, assets, things which we put or TRUST IN. This meaning widens when we consider that we sometimes put our TRUST in the CIRCUMSTANCES around us that we can SEE more so that we TRUST is what Almighty God PROMISES in his word to us. In other words, WITHOUT FAITH or complete TRUST we cannot SERVE God.
We must become ONE with God and his word have our eye SINGLE or FOCUSED ONLY upon what God says in order to over come the lies of the enemy Satan, the Devil. This takes discipline. Our minds need to be RENEWED with the word of God in order that we be transformed to the image of Jesus Christ that Almighty God wants us to become.
Jesus prayed for US to be as ONE with the Father EVEN AS Jesus and the Father are ONE. And I myself TRUST that Almighty God the Father will ANSWER his Son's pray to make us ONE with Almighty God and his Son Jesus.
So then, now that we have CLEARLY and PLAINLY seen that not ALL translation of the Bible have the SAME text and that either these verse in question where ADDED or they were OMITTED let us take a look at some church history to see if we can discern whether they were added or omitted.
Now there is much controversy over verse 7 by many Bible scholars through the years, as to whether the last part of verse 7 was added to some Greek manuscripts or whether it was taken away from other Greek manuscripts. But some Bible scholars today have come to agree that 1 John 5:7 was ADDED or inserted around 200 AD. as a commentary or a note explaining what that particular translator believed the original text was saying. This was around the same time when the doctrine of the trinity began to get a strong foothold in Christianity, but was very heavily debated as to who Jesus truly was as far as being divine and human at the same time. It was also around this same time that serious debate was added to this ongoing debate of Jesus as to who the Holy Spirit truly was as well. The forming of the doctrine of the trinity took many centuries even AFTER it was made an official teaching by the council of Nicaea in 315 AD.
Again some Bible scholars agree that this verse was ADDED to the original manuscript at first being an INSERTED NOTE explaining the text, but it was then copied as being part of the original text when the Latin Vulgate translation was made by the Roman Catholic church. The first Latin Vulgate translation or when LATIN first began to be used in writing books of the Bible was around 200 AD by a Christians writer named Tertullian, who is considered to be the father of the Latin Vulgate translations used primarily by the Roman Catholic church.
For you see, Latin was only used and understood by the well educated. So it is MY own personal OPINION as well as the opinion of others that the Roman Catholic church began using Latin so the common people could not understand what the Bible was saying. This way the leaders of the Roman Catholic church could control the many interpretations that were arising by dogmatically TELLING people what they were to believe whether it was correct or not. It is believed that this alleged strategy of the Roman Catholic church to put the Bible is a language that the common people could not understand was to slow down and hopeful stop any teaching that did not agree with the doctrine of the Roman Catholic church.
Please closely consider the EVIDENCE from these three following different sources reporting the findings of many different Bible scholars:
“The textual evidence is AGAINST 1 John 5:7”, explains Dr. Neil Lightfoot, a New Testament professor. “Of all the Greek manuscripts, only two contain it. These two manuscripts are of very late dates, one from the fourteenth or fifteenth century and the other from the sixteenth century. Two other manuscripts have this verse written in the margin. All four manuscripts show that this verse was apparently translated from a late form of the Latin Vulgate” ( How We Got the Bible, 2003, pp. 100-101).
Peake's Commentary on the Bible is very incisive in its comments as well: “The famous interpolation after 'three witnesses' is not printed in RSV and rightly [so] . . . No respectable Greek [manuscript] contains it. Appearing FIRST in a late 4th century Latin text, it entered the Vulgate [the 5th-century Latin version, which became the common medieval translation] and finally NT [New Testament] of Erasmus [who produced newly collated Greek texts and a new Latin version in the 16th century]” (p. 1038).
The Big Book of Bible Difficulties tells us: “This verse has virtually no support among the early Greek manuscripts . . . Its appearance in late Greek manuscripts is based on the fact that Erasmus was placed under ecclesiastical PRESSURE to include it in his Greek NT of 1522, having OMITTED it in his two earlier editions of 1516 and 1519 because he could not find any Greek manuscripts which contained it”(Norman Geisler and Thomas Howe, 2008, pp. 540-541).
Theology professors Anthony and Richard Hanson, in their book Reasonable Belief: A Survey of the Christian Faith, explain the unwarranted addition to the text this way: “It was added by some enterprising person or persons in the ancient Church who felt that the New Testament was sadly deficient in direct witness to the kind of doctrine of the Trinity which he favoured and who determined to remedy that defect . . . It is a waste of time to attempt to read Trinitarian doctrine directly off the pages of the New Testament” (1980, p. 171).
Still, even the added wording does not by itself proclaim the Trinity doctrine. The addition, illegitimate though it is, merely presents Father, Word and Holy Spirit as WITNESSES. This says nothing about the personhood of all three since verse 7 shows inanimate water and blood serving as such.
Again, the word Trinity did not come into common use as a religious term until after the Council of Nicaea in A.D. 325, several centuries after the last books of the New Testament were complete.
Another source explains 1 John 5:7 as follows:
MODERN scholars do not hesitate to
omit from their Bible translation the spurious passage found at First
John 5:7, 8. After the words “For there are three witness bearers”
this added passage reads, “in heaven, the Father, the Word and the
holy spirit; and these three are one. [Verse 8] And there are three
witness bearers on earth.” (Omitted by the American Standard
Version, An American Translation, English Revised Version, Moffatt,
New English Bible, Phillips, Rotherham, Revised Standard Version,
Schonfield, Wade, Wand, Weymouth, etc.) Commenting on these words,
the famous scholar and prelate B. F. Westcott said, “The words
which are interpolated in the common Greek text in this passage offer
an instructive illustration of the formation and introduction of a
gloss into the apostolic text.”1 So what is the story behind this
passage, and how did the science of textual criticism finally show it
to be no part of God’s inspired Word, the Holy Bible?
And here is yet a third source written by a Christian believer who supports and teaches the doctrine of the trinity. Here are his UNBIASED findings:
"For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.  And there are three that bear witness [in earth,] the Spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three agree in one." I John 5:7, 8 KJV
The words here enclosed in brackets are involved in controversy. The Scofield Reference Bible (1917) notes:
It is generally agreed that v. 7 has no real authority, and has been inserted.
Two questions: 1. What does this note mean? and, 2. Is Scofield right?
First, some essential background information
We have a much higher degree of certainty of the exact original wording of the NT than any other writing from the ancient world. More than 5,000 Greek manuscripts have been preserved (one less than 50 years later than the original writing of John), plus translations into nearly a dozen ancient languages, plus more than 85,000 quotations in Christian writers from the 1st to the 10th centuries.
The evidence regarding I John 5:7
Conclusion: the evidence of every kind is consistent and clear: the disputed words of I John 5:7 have NO CLAIM as an original part of John's letter, but were introduced into Greek from Latin in the very late Middle Ages.
How did the disputed words arise in Latin?
Some Latin-speaking scribe or preacher in North Africa in the 3rd or 4th century probably drew an analogy between the three witnesses of I John. 5:8 (the Spirit, and the water, and the blood), and the three persons of the Trinity, and wrote out his idea in the margin of his manuscript. A later scribe inserted the words from the margin into the text, and from there the insertion gradually spread to other manuscripts until they were included in a majority of medieval Latin manuscripts of I John.
How did the disputed words find there way into printed copies of the Greek NT?
The first published Greek NT was edited in 1516 by Catholic priest, scholar, and humanist Erasmus in 1516. This edition did not include the disputed words. A revised edition in 1519 also did not include these words. Erasmus was severely criticised by other Catholic priests for not including in Greek these words which were well- known to them from the Latin. Erasmus said that the words were left out simply because he did not find them in any of the Greek manuscripts he had examined, and promised to insert them if they were found in even one Greek manuscript.
An Irish monk deliberately fabricated such a manuscript to meet Erasmus' requirement. This manuscript (no. 61) was copied from an early manuscript which did not contain the words. The page in this manuscript containing the disputed words is on a special paper and has a glossy finish, unlike any other page in the manuscript. On the basis of this one 16th century deliberately falsified manuscript, Erasmus inserted the disputed words in his 3rd, 4th, and 5th editions of the Greek NT, though he protested that he did not believe the words were genuine.
Nearly all printed Greek NTs from Erasmus until the 19th century were simply reprints of Erasmus' 4th or 5th edition, and so the words continued to be printed in Greek as part of I John even though there is no sufficient evidence for their inclusion. Recent editions of the Greek NT follow the manuscript evidence and therefore do not insert the words.
How did the disputed words find their way into English Bibles?
Conclusion: Yes, Scofield is right.
Question: If the words are not genuine, does this affect the doctrine of the Trinity?
Answer: not in the least. Those Christian writers of the 2nd- 4th centuries who compiled from Scripture the true orthodox doctrine of the Trinity (namely, that the one true God exists in three equal persons, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) did so without any reference to the disputed words. If their biblical proofs were correct and sufficient and based on undisputed passages, and they certainly were, then the doctrine stands unmoved.
Now this author states that is makes NO DIFFERENCE whether of not 1 John 5:7 was ADDED, ALTERED or TAMPERED with, because some of the Christian writers complied from other verses of scripture the doctrine of the trinity and did so WITHOUT any reference to the disputed words in 1 John 5:7.
But I strongly DISAGREE with this authors statement that if the words are NOT GENUINE it still does not AFFECT the doctrine of the trinity in the least. Open your eyes dear child of God. If these words are NOT GENUINE, then that means that they were ADDED, ALTERED and TAMPER with by the leaders of the Roman Catholic church to try and SUPPORT their FALSE man made doctrine of the trinity of which they had no real sound Biblical evidence to teach, much less than to DOGMATICALLY DEMAND that this man made doctrine be believed or else get kicked out of the Roman Catholic church and be treated like a HERETIC. This was a really big deal back then because your very lively hood depended upon your being accepted by those in power. I mean to ME deliberate FRAUD is a direct admission that there is just NOT any real SOUND BIBLICAL evidence for the doctrine of the trinity so they had to manufacture some of their OWN by ADDING to the very word of Almighty God.
Here are some quotes of early church writers who did indeed teach the doctrine of the trinity, but yet they did NOT seem to know of the “Johanneum Comma”, which is the addition of 1 John 5:7 “there are three that testify in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit, and these three are one.” Now it would be certain that if this verse did indeed exist in these original manuscripts that they would have indeed quoted them. Also notice that the Greek word heis of hen was translated as ARE ONE rather than AGREE as ONE. And that in this FIRST Johanneum Comma the writer states that they are one IN CHRIST Jesus or they are one IN the ANOINTED ONE Jesus. I will explain this further after you read these early church writings.
ca. 380 AD | Spain: A reference to a variant form of the Comma in Liber Apologeticus, a work attributed to either Priscillian or Bishop Instantius who were both later charged with Manicheanism. This is the first known occurrence of a passage that resembles 1 John 5:7.
As John says 'and there are three which give testimony on earth, the water, the flesh the blood, and these three are in one, and there are three which give testimony in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Spirit, and these three ARE ONE IN CHRIST Jesus." (Liber Apologeticus).
ca. 427 AD | Africa: Augustine of Hippo writes a treatise against Arianism. He does not know of the Comma but interprets 1 John 5:8 to refer to the Trinity.
I would not have you mistake that place in the epistle of John the apostle where he says, 'There are three witnesses: the Spirit, and the water, and the blood: and the three ARE ONE.'.... if we will inquire into the things SIGNIFIED I by these, there not unreasonably comes into OUR THOUGHTS the Trinity itself, which is the one, only, true, supreme God, Father and Son and Holy Spirit, of whom it could most truly be said, "There are three witnesses, and the three ARE ONE:" so that by the term 'Spirit' we should understand God the Father to be signified; as indeed it was concerning the worshipping of Him that the Lord was speaking, when He said, "God is a Spirit:" by the term, 'blood,' the Son; because "the Word was made flesh:" and by the term 'water,' the Holy Spirit; as, when Jesus spoke of the water which He would give to them that thirst, the evangelist saith, "But this said He of the Spirit which they that believed on Him were to receive....And if in any other way this depth of mystery which we read in John's epistle can be expounded and understood agreeably with the Catholic faith, which neither confounds nor divides the Trinity, neither believes the substances diverse nor denies that the persons are three, it is on no account to be rejected" (Contra Maximinum Ariannum)
Please again notice that Augustine, who was indeed a strong proponent of the doctrine of the trinity quotes 1 John 5 WITHOUT any reference to the Johanneum Comma "For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one." Also please notice that Augustine quotes the three that bear witness being water, blood and spirit as ARE ONE to be ONE in the SAME way that the Father, Son,a and the Holy Spirit ARE ONE. Now to me not matter what Augustine truly meant by his words they can ONLY mean ONE as in coming together in UNITY and AGREEING as ONE, because CLEARLY water and blood are NOT one and the SELF SAME ELEMENT. Water and blood can be UNITED together or mixed together to NOT be in DISAGREEMENT like water and oil, but they are NOT one and the SAME ELEMENT or of the SAME NATURE.
Plain and simple in the light of the whole word of Almighty God the doctrine of the trinity is NOT a sound Biblical teaching even whether or not 1 John 5:7 was ADDED or it was OMITTED. Another QUESTIONABLE verse is Matthew 28:19. Now while this verse does appear in all the completely preserved manuscripts today it does NOT occur in the earliest manuscripts, BECAUSE none of these original manuscripts contain any words after Matthew 26:54. In other words, the last part of Matthew chapter 26, and all of chapters 27 and 28 are MISSING for whatever reason. So the question arises is this just a coincidence or was Matthew 28:19 ALSO altered to try and support the new developing doctrine of the trinity, which again is NOT CLEARLY and PLAINLY taught in anywhere in the word of TRUTH, the Holy Bible.
The TRUTH of the matter is that we CLEARLY see taught in the Bible that we must believe is BOTH the Father and in his SON Jesus, but NOWHERE in God's word are we taught to be in THREE or a TRINITY. Please read the study “WHO IS THE HOLY SPIRIT?” for a deeper understanding that Almighty God the Father is a SPIRIT who has ALWAYS been IMMORTAL or ETERNAL and that his SPIRIT is called ETERNAL as well. And since the Holy Spirit DWELT IN Jesus and we are plainly told also that the FATHER HIMSELF DWELT in his Son Jesus, then I myself have come to the conclusion that Almighty God the Father and his very own Holy Spirit are ONE and the SELF SAME BEING. Therefore this leaves us with just TWO that we are taught to believe in, which is Almighty God the Father who IS THE INVISIBLE HOLY SPIRIT, and in his SON Jesus.
Thanks for reading. May God bless you richly as you continue to seek the TRUTH of the WHOLE word of Almighty God. Below are some other verses that are used to try and support the doctrine of the trinity and the deity of Jesus. There may be other verses which you may be having trouble seeing any other way than what you were dogmatically taught over and over for so long, but I assure you that each and every verse used by those who teach the doctrine of the trinity does indeed have a different meaning that does NOT CONTRADICT any other part of God's word. If there is a verse that I have not listed please do not hesitate to write and let me know. Some verse are included in others studies and they may not appear as an individual study.If there is a verse of verses that you seem to struggle with only being able to see the doctrine of the trinity when you read this verse, then please search out the truth be listening to the other side of the controversy. No one can arrive at the truth by hearing only ONE side of the controversy. I only present you with ALL the evidence that I myself have found and leave it to you to decide what you want to believe.
Your brother in our Lord Jesus Christ,
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Verses used to try and support the doctrine of the trinity.
Thanks for reading. May God bless you richly as you continue to seek the TRUTH of the WHOLE word of Almighty God.
Your brother in our Lord Jesus the CHRIST.
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